Page 7: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2012). Classroom Diversity: An Introduction to Student Differences. Retrieved on [month, day, year]
The Annie E. Casey Foundation (2012). KIDS COUNT data book. Baltimore, MD: Laura Speer.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., Wang, X., & Zhang, J. (2012). The condition of education 2012 (NCES 2012-045). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012045.pdf
Bouck, E. C. (2004). How size and setting impact education in rural schools. The Rural Educator, 25(3): 38–42. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review Psychology, 53, 371–399
Children’s Defense Fund. (2012). The state of America’s children handbook. Washington, DC: Marian Wright Edelman.
Dresser, N. (1996). Multicultural manners: New rules of etiquette for a changing society. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Gollnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C. (2013). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society. Boston: Pearson.
Harris, E. L. (2005). Key strategies to improve schools: How to apply them contextually. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Hochschild, J. L. (2003). Social class in public schools. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 821–840.
Hoff, E. (2012). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: Implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 4–14.
Mangiante, E. M. S. (2011). Teachers matter: Measures of teacher effectiveness in low-income minority schools. Educational Assessment Evaluation Accreditation, 23(1), 41–63.
McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. S. (2008). Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap. Journal of Psychology, 46(3), 235–261.
Migration Policy Institute, National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy. (2010). ELL information center fact sheet series (No. 1–3). Washington, DC: Jeanne Batalova and Margie McHugh.
Milner, H. R. IV. (2010). Understanding diversity, opportunity gaps, and teaching in today’s classrooms: Start where you are, but don’t stay there. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Muijs, D., Harris, A., Chapman, C., Stoll, L., & Russ, J. (2004). Improving schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas: A review of research evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(2), 149–175.
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2012). Categories of disability under IDEA. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://nichcy.org/disability/categories
National Poverty Center, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy. (2012). Poverty in the United States. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://npc.umich.edu/poverty/
Pellino, K. M. (2007). The effects of poverty on teaching and learning. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teaching/poverty/
Popp, P. A., Grant, L. W., & Stronge, J. H. (2011). Effective teachers for at-risk or highly mobile students: What are the dispositions and behaviors of award-winning teachers? Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 16(4), 275–291. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from
Purcell-Gates, V., McIntyre, E., & Freppon, P. A. (1995). Learning written storybook language in school: A comparison of low-SES children in skills-based and whole language classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 659–685.
Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. F. (1968). Reading 1: Teaching expectations for the disadvantaged. Scientific American, 218(4), 3–6.
Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417–453.
Spiegel, A. (2012). Teachers’ expectations can influence how students perform. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://m.npr.org/news/Science/161159263
United States Department of Education, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students. (2010, May). The growing numbers of English learner students: 1997/98–2007/08. Retrieved on January 31, 2013, from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/9/growingLEP_0708.pdf
United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (2011). Children with disabilities receiving special education under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Table B1-17). Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc13.asp#partbLRE
United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (2011). Part B, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, implementation of FAPE requirements (Table B3-2). Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc13.asp#partbLRE
United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). What social workers do. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Community-and-Social-Service/Social-workers.htm#tab-2
Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts.
American Psychological Association, 100(2), 235–251. Does low-SES affect the reading development of young children?
In this article, the authors attempt to answer that question through use of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort of 1998–1999. Their findings suggest a complex relationship between poverty, socioeconomic status, and reading achievement and overall school performance.
Anyon, J. (1980). Social class and the hidden curriculum of work. Journal of Education, 162(1), 67–92.
In this provocative rumination, the author breaks down schools by socioeconomic classes—working class, middle class, affluent, etc.—to describe the kinds of work and rewards that each offers to their students. His initial findings point to a hierarchy of academic and social recompenses that offer students at “upper-class” schools distinct advantages over their peers.
Dutro, E. (2009). Children writing “Hard Times”: Lived experiences of poverty and the class-privileged assumptions of a mandated curriculum. Language Arts, 87(2), 89–98. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.colorado.edu/education/faculty/elizabethdutro/docs/
This article revolves around the contrast between lived poverty (as described by students in a working-class school) and the description of that condition as presented in current research and academic literature. Described here in detail are the assumptions of that curriculum, as well as students’ reactions to illustrations of poverty in their own reading, and implications for instruction in classrooms characterized by economic diversity.
Gorski, P. (2008). The myth of the culture of poverty. Educational Leadership, 65(7), 32–36. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr08/vol65/num07/The-Myth-of-the-Culture-of-Poverty.aspx
In this brief but highly informative piece, the author tackles some of the most prevalent and widespread cultural myths surrounding the poor and suggests steps that educators can take to disarm those myths and help their students to achieve.
Harry, B., & Klingner, J. (2007). Discarding the deficit model. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 16–21. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from
The “deficit model” of exceptional students is built around the language of an absence or lack of ability. Here, the authors argue against this approach, discuss the cost of conceptualizing certain students as incapable relative to their peers, and suggest a new vision of describing—and engaging—student differences.
Menken, K., & Kleyn, T. (2009). The difficult road for long-term English learners. Educational Leadership, 66(7). Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from
Who are English language learners and what are their specific challenges? This piece sets out to answer that question, first offering the specific stories of individual young people and their classroom histories and then proposing some reforms to help ELLs get the best education outcomes possible.
Ready, D. D., & Wright, D. L. (2011). Accuracy and inaccuracy in teacher’s perceptions of young children’s cognitive abilities: The role of child background and classroom context. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 335–360. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://aer.sagepub.com/content/48/2/335.full
In this informative piece, the authors examine the role that teacher perception of student abilities and socioeconomic circumstances play in the kind of instruction they offer those students. What they find suggests that, in fact, those perceptions might play as important and influential a role as do the circumstances themselves, leading teachers to routinely underestimate their students’ capabilities and shaping their instruction to meet a false set of standards.
Sato, M., & Lensmire, T. J. (2008). Poverty and Payne: Supporting teachers to work with children of poverty. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 365–370.
Stereotypes about poor children influence the way that teachers engage them in the classroom. In this piece, the authors examine the most prevalent of those misperceptions and offer some strategies for dispelling them.
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Executive summary: Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
With increased language diversity in the nation’s schools comes the challenge of how best to teach today’s students. This executive summary outlines the findings and recommendations of the Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. On hand here is a demographic overview, plus an examination of the role of socio-economic contexts on literacy development and a synthesis of language and literacy assessment.
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
In this book, the author lays out the argument that the best way to address the persistent problem of low achievement among diverse students is to offer those students instruction that is filtered through their own cultural contexts. Included are thoughts on cultural stereotypes that influence classroom instruction and achievement, as well as detailed examples of culturally responsive teaching and programs.
Grant, C. A., & Sleeter, C. E. (2007). Doing multicultural education for achievement and equity. New York: Routledge.
Now more than ever, teachers must prepare to encounter diverse student populations whose learning needs might not be immediately apparent. In this study, the authors detail some of the ways that teachers can best prepare themselves for the challenges of today’s classrooms, including notes on the effects of students’ socioeconomic status on learning outcomes and teacher perceptions and the cultural and social realities in which schools exist, among much else.
McLoyd, V. C., Hill, N. E., & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.). (2005). African American family life: Ecological and cultural diversity. New York: Guilford Press.
Here, a range of authors examines the current state and future directions of black families in the United States today. On hand are detailed looks at the way current public policy affects African American’s lives on a variety of fronts, cultural, social, and educational.
Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Education English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Retrieved on January 22, 2013, from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/3/EducatingELLsBuildingTeacherCapacityVol1.pdf
This report provides effective and relevant resources for teachers and other practitioners working with English language learners who may still need support in acquiring and using language in the classroom.
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2004). Universal Design for Learning. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.cast.org/research/udl/index.html
This handy and compact online resource outlines the basics of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). A link to common questions—and answers—about UDL is also here for further exploration.
Ford, K. (2005). Fostering literacy development in English language learners. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/12924/
This informative resource outlines some of the most common challenges facing students as they develop second-language literacy in English. Included are thoughts on the importance of phonological skills and implications for instruction of recent research.
National Center on Educational Outcomes. http://www.cehd.umn.edu/nceo/
The Website of the National Center on Educational Outcomes is a storehouse of information about students of all kinds. On hand here are links to information about academic standards, ELL students with disabilities, tools for improving student access to the general education curriculum, and much, much more.
National Center for Education Statistics (2008). Characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States: 2005–2006 (NCES 2008-339). Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/pub_100_largest.asp
One way to see the ways in which schools—and students—have changed over the years is to access this online resource that houses reports on the nation’s largest schools going back to the late 1980s. An important tool for those wishing more information about the rapid shift in student demographics.
National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities http://www.ndpc-sd.org/
The online home of the National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities offers information and resources to help states to document and curb the relatively high dropout rates common among students with exceptionalities. Visitors will find links to tips on writing and reviewing annual performance results and toolkits for school leaders, teachers, and parents.
Toldson, I. A., & Lewis, C. W. (2012). Challenge the status quo: Academic success among school-age African American males. Washington, DC: Congressional Black Caucus Foundation. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.cbcfinc.org/oUploadedFiles/CTSQ.pdf
This report from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation takes a public policy look at how to bridge the achievement gap among the nation’s black students. Recommendations include steps to address inequities in teacher assignment and the unbalance in salary among teachers who lead classrooms in diverse school districts, among much else.
U.S. Department of Education. (2015). English learner tool kit. Retrieved on December 15, 2015, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/english-learner-toolkit/index.html
This online resource is designed to help state and local education agencies to fulfill their legal obligations to English language learners in their classrooms. Included are links to information on staffing and supporting ELL programs, assessment and evaluation of those programs, and creating inclusive environments for all learners, among much else.
Watson, D. (2012). A message from a black mom to her son. Rethinking Schools, 26(3), 1–2. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/26_03/26_03_watson.shtml
This open letter from an African-American woman to her school age son addresses, in the most personal way possible, the struggles faced by diverse students and the ways in which their teachers’—and their society’s—preconceptions about them and their abilities too often unfairly shape their educational outcomes and futures.
Williams, P. 92007). Disproportionality and overrepresentation (Module 5). Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 Training Curriculum. Washington, DC: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://nichcy.org/laws/idea/legacy/module5
This online module, produced by the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, examines the problem of the overrepresentation of diverse students in special education services. Included are links for a trainer’s guide to explain the module’s use, handouts for participants (in English and Spanish), and a slideshow to help get participants up to speed on current IDEA regulations.
Zurita, M. (2005). Improving the education of Latino students. Minority Student Achievement Network: Invitational Paper Series. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://msan.wceruw.org/publications/Invite%20Latino%20Students%202005.pdf
This informative online resource offers research and thoughts on educating the fastest growing minority population in the United States today. Readers will find information on high school completion and college enrollment rates among Latino populations, computer and Internet access, and detailed thoughts about future directions for public and school policy