Page 9: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
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Bakunas, B., & Holley, W. (2001). Teaching organizational skills. The Clearing House, 77(3).
In this article, the authors lay out an intuitive method for teaching organizational skills to students as they would other types of process-related subjects: through repetition and modeling. The method presented here stresses simplicity and clearly outlined objectives while inviting instructors to add their own priorities to this otherwise usefully barebones approach.
Boyle, J. R. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 46, 131–140. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/6210/
One of the keys to successful student study skills habits is efficient and useful note-taking. Here the author offers a pair of recommendations: potential modification to the teacher’s presentation style, or the teaching of refined note-taking techniques. Included are templates for strategic note-taking and an outline of guided notes for use by students in the classroom.
Ewoldt. K. B., & Morgan, J. J. (2017). Color-coded graphic organizers for teaching writing to students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(3), 175–184.
In this article, the authors promote the use of graphic organizers to help improve the writing skills of struggling learners. Covered here are systemic instruction using color-coded organizers, sentence and paragraph creation, the use of prompts, and much more.
Hagaman, J. L., & Reid, R. (2008). The effects of the paraphrasing strategy on the reading comprehension of middle-school students at-risk for failure in reading. Remedial & Special Education, 29, 222–234.
In this article, the authors set out to examine the effectiveness of a paraphrasing strategy called “RAP” when used in conjunction with self-regulated strategy development among at-risk sixth-grade students. On hand are notes about instructional considerations and a conclusion indicating that the strategy pairing resulted in improved reading outcomes.
Hall, C., Kent, S. C., McCulley, L., Davis, Angela, & Wanzek, J. (2013). A new look at mnemonics and graphic organizers in the secondary social studies classroom. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(1), 47–55.
In this article, the authors examine a number of strategies designed to help students with disabilities improve their outcomes in secondary social studies. With a particular focus on the use of graphic organizers, the article offers detailed illustrations as examples of visually imparting information to students who might struggle with text information. Also on hand are notes on acoustic elaborations, guidelines for the use of visual mnemonics, and step-by-step guidelines for the use of graphic organizers, among much more.
Kim, W., Linan-Thompson, S., & Misquitta, R. (2012). Critical factors in reading comprehension instruction for students with learning disabilities: A research synthesis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27(2), 66–78. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2012.00352.x
This review of some twenty years of research into the effectiveness of reading comprehension strategies suggests a complex range of positive effects on student outcomes across a number of techniques and instructional practices. Here the authors focus on five critical factors, including self-monitoring and fidelity of instruction. A discussion that includes notes on implications for practice is included.
Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2010). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 46(3), 131–140. Retrieved on February 20, 2013, from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1053451210378163
Especially for students with learning disabilities, taking notes in class can prove a challenge. In this article, the authors lay out a guided note-taking strategy that will help students to study and ultimately serve to improve their academic outcomes. They include notes on developing a guided note-taking strategy and thoughts on how to combine that strategy with other evidence-based instructional techniques.
Rozalski, M. E. (2008). Practice, practice, practice: How to improve students’ study skills. Beyond Behavior, 17(2), 17–23.
For students with emotional and behavioral issues, good study skills are especially important. Here the authors describe some basic strategies for effective instruction into such basic habits as good listening, note-taking, and memory and recall, as well as notes on how it can all be integrated into daily classroom learning.
Singleton, S. M., & Filce, H. G. (2015). Graphic organizers for secondary students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(2), 110–117.
In this article, the authors look at the ways in which graphic organizers can be used to help secondary students with disabilities to develop the critical thinking skills required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Included are notes and tips on selecting graphic organizers for students with disabilities, as well as examples of some of those organizers as they might be used in classrooms, presenting graphic organizers in during a lesson, and much more.
Stowe, M. (2015). Graphic organizers: guiding principles and effective practices considerations packet. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved August 22, 2022, from https://education.wm.edu/centers/ttac/documents/packets/graphicorganizers.pdf
A wide variety of graphic organizers—used across an array of instructional subjects—have been embraced by teachers as a way to improve the learning outcomes of their students. In this concise resource, the authors introduce readers to a number of them, suggest tips for effective implementation, and offer evidence of their effectiveness. An expanded section on instructional context, complete with a host of resources for further review, rounds out the effort.
Lavoie, R. D., & the Public Broadcasting System. (Producers). (2004). Understanding learning disabilities: How difficult can this be? The F.A.T. city workshop [Motion picture]. United States: PBS Video.
In this video, Richard Lavoie, an educator and expert on youth with learning disabilities, presents a number of simulated classroom situations designed to vividly illustrate the frustrations and challenges faced by students with learning differences. Also included are discussions of strategies to help lessen those frustrations, as well as meditations by participating parents, teachers, and others on how the simulations changed their perceptions of the day-to-day struggles encountered by students with learning disabilities in the classroom.
Ellis, E. S. (1998). Framing main ideas and essential details to promote comprehension. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5765/
This adaptation of a book-length work overviews a particular type of graphic organizer that can be adapted to a wide variety of content-learning purposes. Included are notes on effective classroom implementation and a number of templates to meet an array of possible instructional uses.
Great Schools. (n.d.). Study and test-taking strategies for kids with learning difficulties. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from
Good study habits are especially important for students with learning difficulties, but those are precisely the students are least likely to receive the kind of instruction they need to develop them. This article makes the case for that instruction, and includes notes on helping students to know what to study, strategies for organizing and remembering, and information about effective self-monitoring practices, among much else.
Hatton, D., & Hatton, K. (n.d.). Apps for students with LD: Organization and study. Retrieved on November 5, 2013, from http://ldaiowa.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/Apps-for-Students-With-LD-Organization-and-Study-NCLD.pdf
This helpful list, devised by a woman with the assistance of her daughter, who has dyslexia, describes and links directly to a number of mobile apps that students with learning disabilities might find useful. Users will find apps designed to help students to keep track of their courses, a mapping tool to help students record and remember their thoughts, and a program for creating annotations on large PDF and TXT files, among much else.
Herrera, S., Truckenmiller, A.J., & Foorman, B.R. (2016). Summary of 20 years of research on the effectiveness of adolescent literacy programs and practices. (REL 2016–178). Washing¬ton, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. Retrieved May 9, 2022 from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southeast/pdf/REL_2016178.pdf
This article outlines research into the effectiveness of reading comprehension instruction programs and practices. Findings and helpful practices are briefly overviewed.
Kerka, S., ed. (2007). Study skills. Columbus, OH: Learning Work Connection. Retrieved on January 4, 2013, from https://www.azed.gov/sites/default/files/2016/08/Research-Study%20Skills.pdf?id=57ae503caadebe10a8464fa5
Produced by LearningWork Connection and featuring short articles from a variety of experts, this downloadable document is an informative reference on many key aspects of study skills instruction. On hand are Carolyn Ito’s thoughts on students who struggle with organizational skills, Pat Beckman on strategy instruction, and Andrew Cohen on strategy training for secondary language students, among much else.
LD Online. (2003). Opening the doors to learning: Technology research for students with learning disabilities (notetaking skills). Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Opening_the_Doors_to_Learning%3A_Technology_
This resource offers some thoughts on the importance of note-taking to improve the education outcomes of students with disabilities. Included here is the story of “Luke,” a student struggling with just that skill, as well as an introduction to the “Project Connect” system, a technological application to enhance student study habits.
Levy, E. (2007). Teaching students to take class notes. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/12855/
It’s widely accepted that students with learning disabilities tend to struggle when it comes to taking good notes in the classroom, but what are some specific methods they can use to take better, more meaningful notes? In this short but useful online resource, the author sets out some basic examples of ways students can quickly and easily improve their note-taking skills through the use of symbols, abbreviations, and webbing, among others.
Newhall, P. W. (2008). Organizational skills for students with learning disabilities: The master filing system for paper. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/25179/
One of the most common issues facing students with learning disabilities is that of simply organizing and keeping track of their books, notebooks, homework, and other basic classroom necessities. In this piece, the author overviews a method for doing just that. Included are notes on creating such a “master filing system” and mastering its use and routines.
Richards, R. G. (2008). Making it stick: Memorable strategies to enhance learning. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/making_it_stick:_memorable_strategies_to_enhance_learning
More and more, researchers are recognizing that good memorization is a skill that can be taught and learned and that good memorization can improve student study skills habits and learning outcomes. Here, the author outlines a handful of methods for improving memorization, including the use of rhyming or mnemonic devices, and graphic organizers, among much else.
Richards, R. G. (2008). Memory strategies for students: The value of strategies. Retrieved on February 20, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5736/
As in the resource above, this online piece suggests a number of strategies to improve the ability of students organize and recall academic content. These include the use of diagrams and other graphic tools, mnemonic devices, and sound/ symbol correspondences, among others.
Zumbrunn, S., Tadlock, J., & Roberts, E. D. (2011). Encouraging self-regulated learning in the classroom: A review of the literature. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/merc_pubs/18/
This informative overview of the current research literature includes a detailed definition of self-regulation and its crucial importance in student learning, as well as notes on a number of effective self-regulation strategies, potential instructional challenges, and the implications for further investigation and inquiry.