How can teachers systematically identify when to adjust instruction for struggling students?
Page 1: Formative Assessment
Reading is a critical learning skill, one used throughout the academic curriculum, be it in history, social studies, science, or mathematics. But reading is also a critical life skill, one we use in countless facets of our daily lives and personal or professional interactions. If they are to be successful in school as well as later in life, students must begin to develop essential reading skills at an early age. As they progress through school, they will use those skills to read and understand written material, learn from various types of texts, and then apply what they have read to new situations and new learning. That is to say, students not only learn to read, they also read to learn. Educators can help them to do so by implementing high-quality reading instruction.
Although perhaps not immediately intuitive, a part of this instruction is assessment. In general, assessment is the process of gathering information through methods both formal and informal to measure student performance. Used effectively, classroom assessment informs the ways in which teachers approach and deliver instruction. Though some teachers are concerned that assessments will take time away from instructional activities, in fact the opposite is the case. Classroom assessment can help teachers plan instruction that more efficiently and effectively targets specific student needs, subsequently improving learning outcomes. The table below outlines the three most common types of assessment.
Often referred to as pre-assessment, it can be used by teachers before instruction to:
This ongoing evaluation of student learning during instruction can be used to:
This evaluation administered after instruction is used to:
* This type of diagnostic assessment is not to be confused with individualized diagnostic assessment implemented after instruction with struggling learners or students with disabilities. This diagnostic assessment is used to understand why these students are not making adequate progress in certain skills and to subsequently inform the teacher’s instruction.
Did You Know?
Federal laws, such as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), encourage the use of formative assessment to improve student outcomes and to narrow learning gaps.
Each of the assessments described above serves an important, albeit very different, function in the instructional process. Read on to learn more.
Diagnostic assessments allow teachers to collect information about a student’s strengths or weaknesses in a content or skill area prior to instruction. Teachers can then use this information to more effectively plan instruction, making sure to address misunderstandings and to focus on skills or content the students have not mastered while avoiding covering topics with which they have already gained proficiency.
Summative assessments, which are usually one-time evaluations, allow teachers to evaluate whether students have learned previously taught content or skills. On one end of the spectrum are common classroom assessments typically used for grading purposes (e.g., chapter tests, unit tests, research papers). At the other end of the spectrum are year-end achievement tests, which are given once a year, near the end of the school year. Although the results are usually not available for many weeks or months following administration, they provide an indication of a student’s overall progress for the year. As is typically the case for any type of summative assessment, teachers do not have enough remaining time to implement instructional changes to remediate skills if they find that students did not perform well.
Formative assessments, which occur during instruction, allow teachers to determine whether students are learning as the material is being taught. This deliberate process of assessing as learning is occurring allows teachers to adjust instruction as needed to meet the learning needs of their students. More specifically, formative assessment:
- Provides useful information about a student’s progress toward certain learning objectives, her understanding of the skills or content being taught, and any misconceptions she may have
- Allows teachers to make informed decisions about when to review or reteach content or skills or to adapt instruction
- Helps identify students who are consistently struggling
As you learned in the Challenge, Ms. Chee wonders whether there is a way to quickly and systematically assess her students’ acquisition of reading skills to inform her instruction. This module will focus on formative assessment, something that will help Ms. Chee to accomplish her goal.
- Seminal research and subsequent reviews of research indicate that students whose teachers use formative assessment perform better on a variety of achievement indicators (including reading) than their peers whose teachers did not.
(Klute, Apthorp, Harlacher, & Reale, 2017; Hanover Research, 2014; Black & Wiliam, 1998; Kingston & Nash, 2011)
- Formative assessment has been shown to improve the learning outcomes of students with disabilities, students who struggle, and English learners.
(Madison-Harris & Muoneke, 2012)