Page 11: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2005, 2023). Addressing Challenging Behaviors (Part 1, Secondary): Understanding the Acting-Out Cycle. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/bi1-sec/
Adamson, R., & Nelson, J. (2022, January 16). Crisis intervention programs: Uncovering the knowledge, use, and dissemination of deescalation practices within school settings [Presentation]. CEC 2022 Special Education Convention & Expo, Orlando, FL.
Aloe, A.M., Shislet, S.M., Norris, B.D., Nickerson, A.B., & Rinker, T.W. (2014). A multivariate meta-analysis of student misbehavior and teacher burnout. Educational Research Review, 12, 30-44.
Benner, G. J., Nelson, J.R., Sanders, E.A., & Ralston, N.C. (2012). Behavior intervention for students with externalizing behavior problems: Primary level standard protocol. Exceptional Children, 78(2), 181-198.
Blank, C., & Shavit, Y. (2016). The association between student reports of classmates’ disruptive behavior and student achievement. AERA Open, 2(3), 1-17.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, March 4). Data and statistics on children’s mental health. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/data.html
Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports. (n.d.). School-wide. Retrieved from https://www.pbis.org/topics/school-wide.
Colvin, G., &. Scott, T.M. (2015). Managing the cycle of acting-out behavior in the classroom (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Model of Prevention. (2016). Tertiary (tier 3) intervention grid: For elementary schools. Retrieved from https://www.ci3t.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/00_Individualized-De-escalation-Support-Plan-Grid-DRAFT2.pdf
EAB. (2019). Breaking bad behavior: The rise of classroom disruptions in early grades and how districts are responding. District Leadership Forum. Retrieved from: http://pages.eab.com/rs/732-GKV-655/images/BreakingBadBehaviorStudy.pdf
Hopeful Futures Campaign. (2022). America’s school mental health report card. Retrieved from: https://hopefulfutures.us/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/Final_Master_021522.pdf
Kokkinos, C.M. (2007). Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 229-243.
McCormick, J., & Barnett, K. (2011). Teachers’ attributions for stress and their relationships with burnout. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(3), 278-293.
Musu, L., Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., & Oudekerk, B.A. (2019). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2019 (NCES 2019-047/NCJ 252571). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, D.C.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2022). School Pulse Panel. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/schoolsurvey/spp/
Pearse, M. (2015, November 13). The importance of debriefing in learning and what that might look like in the classroom. Retrieved from https://corwin-connect.com/2015/11/the-importance-of-debriefing-in-learning-and-what-that-might-look-like-in-the-classroom/
Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1997). Debriefing: A transition step for promoting acceptable behavior. Education and Treatment of Children, 20(2), 209-221.
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (2021). Inclusive strategies to address behavioral needs for students with IEPs. Retrieved from https://dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/sped/pdf/pbis-response-cycle-4b.pdf.
Lodi, E., Perrella, L., Lepri, G. L., Scarpa, M. L., & Patrizi, P. (2021). Use of restorative justice and restorative practices at school: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010096
This article explains restorative justice and explores restorative practices used in schools. The literature review demonstrates the benefits of restorative justice such as improved school climate, positive conflict management, positive relationships, and social and emotional skills.
Martel, C., & Cavanaugh, B. (2016). Preventing and responding to student escalation: Combining de-escalation strategies and function-based support. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 31-43. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1129816.pdf
This article reviews the acting-out cycle and function-based support, then combines the two into a suggested intervention for challenging behavior in the classroom.
CCNetwork National Center. (2022). Trauma-informed practices resource list dashboard. Retrieved from https://app.smartsheet.com/b/publish?EQBCT=f250258487f7488594d1a0327ace297b
This site is hosted by the Comprehensive Center Network (CCNetwork) and features 20 federally funded Technical Assistance Centers. Useful information on this site includes a trauma-informed practices resource list dashboard. The dashboard displays multiple categories for deeper exploration, such as addressing grief and historical trauma. These categories contain links to literature reviews, Web pages, articles, strategies, and toolkits with more information.
Kelley, B. (n.d.). Responding to problem behavior in a PBIS classroom. CalTAC PBIS. Retrieved from
This document from the California Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports outlines the acting out cycle and teacher strategies to address each phase.
Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Model of Prevention. (2016). Template: Individualized de-escalation support plan. Retrieved from https://www.ci3t.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/02_Individualized-Deescalation-Support-Plan-TEMPLATE.pdf
Educators can use this template to document student characteristics during each phase of the acting out cycle and record strategies to support students in each respective phase.