Page 13: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2010). Creating an Inclusive School Environment: A model for School Leaders Retrieved on [month, day, year] from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/inc/
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Planty, M., Snyder, T., Bianco, K., Fox, M., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Drake, L. (2010). The condition of education 2009: Indicator 4: Racial/ ethnic enrollment in public schools. National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Planty, M., Snyder, T., Bianco, K., Fox, M., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Drake, L. (2010). The condition of education 2009: Indicator 5: Language minority school-age children. National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Planty, M., Snyder, T., Bianco, K., Fox, M., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Drake, L. (2010). The condition of education 2009: Indicator 6: Children and youth with disabilities. National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Bridgeland, J. M., Dilulio, J. J., & Balfanz, R. (2009, June). On the frontlines of schools: Perspectives of teachers and principals on the high school dropout problem. Retrieved on 9 July 2010 from
Causton-Theoharis, J., & Theoharis, G. (2008). Creating inclusive schools for all students. School Administrator, 65(8), 24–30.
Cohen, D. S. (2005). The heart of change field guide: Tools and tactics for leading change in your organization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Cortiella, C. (2006). NCLB and IDEA: What parents of students with disabilities need to know and do. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.cehd.umn.edu/nceo/onlinepubs/parents.pdf
deBettencourt, L. U. (2002). Understanding the differences between IDEA and Section 504. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 34(3), 16–23.
DEC/NAEYC. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division of Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/DEC_NAEYC_EC_updatedKS.pdf
Education Week. (2004, September 10). Adequate yearly progress. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/adequate-yearly-progress/
Equity Alliance at ASU. (2009). Inclusive education for equity: Professional learning for equity module Academy 1: Understanding inclusive education. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.equityallianceatasu.org/professional-learning/inclusive-education-for-equity/1
Ferguson, D. L., Kozleski, E. B., & Smith, A. S. (2005, November). On…transformed, inclusive schools: A framework to guide fundamental change in urban schools. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.askresource.org/Publications/Transformed%20Inclusive%20Schools.pdf
Fisher, D., Sax, C., & Pumpian, I. (1999). Inclusive high school: Learning from contemporary classrooms. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Fullan, M., Hill, P., & Crevola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.michaelfullan.ca/resource_assets/handouts/BreakthroughUnit_A4.pdf
Garrison-Wade, D., Sobel, D., & Fulmer, C. L. (2007, January). Inclusive leadership: Preparing principals for the role that awaits them. Educational Leadership and Administration, 19, 117–132.
Gerent, M. C., & Hotz, J. Z. (2003). Preparing practicing teachers to teach in inclusive schools. Academic Exchange Quarterly.
Hammond, H., & Ingalls, L. (2003). Teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion: Survey results from elementary teachers in three southwestern rural school districts. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 22(2), 24–30. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4052/is_200304/ai_n9201600/?tag=content;col1
Jorgensen, J., & Abplanalp, S. (2008, July). The Madison story: Vision into reality—Inclusive, collaborative, and culturally responsive schools. PowerPoint presentation presented in July 2008.
Kennedy, C. H., & Fisher, D. (2001). Inclusive middle schools. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Lipsky, D. K., & Gartner, A. G. (2008). Inclusion: A service, not a place: A whole school approach. Port Chester, NY: Dude Publishing.
Madhumita, P., & Abraham, G., eds. (2004). Handbook for inclusive education for educators, administrators, and planners: Within walls, without boundaries. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
National Center on Education Statistics. Fast facts: How many students with disabilities receive services? Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=64
National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Misperceptions about inclusive schools. Retrieved on September 11, 2015, from http://dssl.wceruw.org/index/pdf/misconcept.pdf
Postsecondary Education Consortium. (2005). Comparison of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA ’04), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (Section 504), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 – NCLB ’01). Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.michiganallianceforfamilies.org/inf/docs/iep.idea.comparison.pdf
Salisbury, C., & McGregor, G. (2005, November). Principals of inclusive schools. On Point Series. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/principals.inclusive.LETTER.pdf
Scruggs, T. E., & Leins, P. (2010, April). Do general education teachers support inclusion?: Results of a research synthesis. Paper presented at annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children Conference, Nashville, Tennessee.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/ inclusion, 1985–1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 63, 59–74.
Smith, T. E. C. (2001). Section 504, the ADA, and public schools. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/6108
Stolber, K. C., Gettinger, M., & Goetz, D. (1998). Exploring factors influencing parents’ and early childhood practitioners’ beliefs about inclusion. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13(1), 107–124.
Strieker, T., Salisbury, C., & Roach, V. (2001). Determining policy supports for inclusive schools. Consortium of Inclusive Schooling Practices. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/DPSFIS.pdf?v_document_name=Determining%20Policy%20Supports%20for%20Inclusive%20Schools
Swedeen, B. L. (2009, January). Signs of an inclusive school: A parent’s perspective on the meaning and value of authentic inclusion. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 5(3). Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from
Voltz, D. L., & Collins, L. (2010). Preparing special education administrators for inclusion in diverse, standards-based contexts: Beyond the Council for Exceptional Children and the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(1), 70-–82.
Waldron, N. L. (2000). Inclusive schools in action: making differences ordinary. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Wisconsin Education Association Council. (2007, March). Special education inclusion. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from
Articles and Books
Bartlett, L. D., Weisenstein, G. R., & Etscheidt, S. (2002). Successful inclusion for educational leaders. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/ Prentice Hall.
One of the most complicated issues surrounding inclusion is the nature and requirements of existing federal laws. This book-length work presents a useful and useable explanation of that law, and includes a veritable catalogue of relevant topics including suggestions for working with parents and thoughts about IEPs.
Brigharm, N., Morocco, C. C., Clay, K., & Zigmond, N. (2006). What makes a high school a good high school for students with disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research &
Practice, 21(3), 184–190.
This useful article presents a summary of a study centered around three high schools. The authors examined school practices related to the education of students with disabilities, including the relative success of the schools’ efforts toward inclusion. Reflections on a systemic approach to school reform and transformation follow the data.
Brigharm, N., Parker, C. E., Morocco, C. C., & Zigmond, N. (2006). Apalachee high school: The last real high school in America: “You don’t go to Apalachee. You belong to it.” Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21(3), 172–183.
The authors of this article followed the navigation of three students with disabilities through the established supports and programs at a Florida high school. The extent to which that pathway to academic and social success were effective among exceptional students is the subject of the study. A reflection on the findings—and their implications to a broader application—is included.
Capper, C. A., & Frattura, E. M. (2009). Meeting the needs of students of all abilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
This book offers a systematic, step-by-step approach to the task of creating an inclusive environment in any school. An interpretation of the relevant federal law, as well as an examination of the preparation necessary before school change can be undertaken, are among its many topics.
Dettmer, P., Thurston, L. P., Knackendoffel, A., & Dyck, N. J. (2009). Consultation, collaboration, and teamwork for students with special needs. Boston: Pearson, 6th Ed.
This workbook for instructors is an invaluable resource for sample syllabi, assessments, activities, and quizzes and tests. Chapters on English language learners and the current federal law pertaining to students with special needs are also on hand.
DiPaola, M. F., Walther-Thomas, C. (2003). Principals in special education: The critical role of school leaders (COPSSE Document No. IB-7E). Gainesville: University of Florida, Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.
This work takes a look at the ways in which school leaders shape the effective implementation of special education in their schools. Among its topics is an examination of the role of principals as applies to all students in a school, whether with disabilities or otherwise. A number of suggestions and reflections on the future of such school leadership follow.
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success: How we can learn to fulfill our potential. New York: Ballantine.
This book by a professor of psychology examines the problems and perils that arise when one has too much a fixed mindset and offers advice on how to change to a more flexible way of looking at the world and oneself. A useful tool for school leaders who wish to implement change in their schools and who might face opposition from teachers used to their routines and ways of looking at the potentials of various kinds of students.
Guzman, N. (1997). Leadership for successful inclusive schools: A study of principal behaviors. Journal of Educational Administration, 35(3), 439–450.
In this piece, the authors examine the methods and guiding philosophies of six successful elementary school principals, with a focus on their efforts toward creating inclusive environments. Commonalities among the six—each was, for example, deeply involved in the creation of IEPs, and took a leadership role in communications with parents of students with disabilities—are discussed in detail.
King, K. A., Capullo, K., Kozleski, E. B., & Gonzales, J. (2009). Inclusive education for equity. Professional Learning for Equity Module Series. Tempe, AZ: The Equity Alliance at ASU.
Developed by the Equity Alliance at Arizona State University, this detailed and expansive module offers a deep look at inclusive education. On hand are working definitions of inclusion, as well as a look at validated methods for inclusive instruction, revealing activities, and a worksheet for assessing inclusive curricula.
Kleinert, H. L., Miracle, S. A., & Sheppard-Jone, K. (2007, August). Including students with moderate and severe disabilities in extracurricular and community recreation activities: Steps to success. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(6), 33–38. School life, of course, extends beyond the classroom.
This article considers how teachers and school leaders can include students with exceptionalities in both extracurricular activities as well as community-based ones. An examination of a statewide survey of teachers is discussed and recommendations for greater levels of inclusion offered.
Lingo, A. S., Barton-Arwood, S. M., & Jolivette, K. (2011). Teachers working together: Improving learning outcomes in the inclusive classroom—Practical strategies and examples. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), 6–13.
This article examines a number of detailed and concrete strategies teachers can employ to improve the overall instructional outcomes in their classrooms. As the title suggests, there’s an emphasis on teacher collaboration, with thoughts and evaluations (both pro and con) of various methods of progress monitoring and measurement. Also on hand are notes on event recording and collaboration steps and considerations. Implications for teachers going forward round out the effort.
Morocco, C. C., Aguilar, C. M., Clay, K., Brigham, N., & Zigmond, N. (2006). Good high schools for students with disabilities: Introduction to the special issue. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21(3), 135–145.
This introduction to a special issue about inclusion involves a search for three “good high schools,” their commonalties, what were their strategies for educating students with disabilities, and the implications of what it all means for schools across the nation.
Morocco, C. C., Clay, K., Parker, C. E., & Zigmond, N. (2006). Walter Cronkite high school: A culture of freedom and responsibility. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21(3), 146–158.
Among the high school selected for inclusion in the study mentioned above was New York’s Walter Cronkite High. In this article, the authors examine WCH’s action theory of inclusion, as well as its concept of the “assembled puzzle” whereby students with disabilities are provided with access to the general education curriculum and the other opportunities that go along with school life. Specifically, the case of three students of the school is examined, and a look at a broader data set is included.
Pavri, S., & Monda-Amaya, L. (2001). Social support in inclusive schools: Student and teacher perspectives. Exceptional Children, 67(3), 391–411.
This article collects and compares the recorded assessments and observations of both teachers and students in inclusive classrooms. Findings suggest that students feel a sense of isolation even in some inclusive environments and that there may be a gap between what such students perceive as helpful models of inclusion and those favored by their instructors. Implications are discussed.
Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal’s role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of the normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of Educational Research, 70(1), 55–81.
In this article, the author examines the role of school principals in leading reform efforts toward creating an inclusive school environment, concluding that, “Administrative work that accomplishes these tasks can be thought of as a form of practice, with moral, epistemological, constitutive, and discursive dimensions.” An expansive definition of the purpose of inclusion as an instrument of social justice is considered.
Staub, D. (2005). Inclusion and the other kids: Here’s what research shows so far about inclusion’s effect on nondisabled students. On Point Series. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/OP_Kids.pdf
This study issued by the National Institute for Urban School Improvement looks at the effects of inclusion on non-disabled students, a common concern and source of confusion among both school personnel and the general public. Though the research is at present incomplete, current findings suggest that inclusive environments do nothing to academically harm non-disabled students and indeed may present a number of positive externalities—more diverse friendships, the development of expanded social skills, and an enriched system of personal principles, among them—of benefit to them and their peers with disabilities.
Access to the General Curriculum. (n.d.). Leadership & vision: A systemic approach to student success. PowerPoint presentation.
This PowerPoint presentation created by Access to the General Curriculum lays out a systematized approach to creating general education access for all students, whether they have disabilities or otherwise. A useful tool for beginning to create one’s own vision for school transformation.
Beloin, K. S., & DeHart, P. (2001). The Wisconsin rural-urban schooling research project, 1998-–2001. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from
This study examined eight Wisconsin schools and compiled data on them across a number of metrics during a three-year period. The findings support the contention that more and more students are allowed access to the general education curriculum, as well as that such access proved a “valuable experience” for most students.
California Department of Education and WestEd. (2011). The California School Climate Survey (CSCS). Retrieved on January 4, 2011, from http://cscs.wested.org
This survey, which could serve as a prototype for other states, gathers information aimed at increasing teacher retention and promoting a positive school climate. It includes twenty-four questions focused specifically on students with IEPs and is designed to use data on personnel perceptions and concerns to guide program and service improvement. (Please note that IRIS does not endorse or promote any specific survey. The CSCS is included here merely as an example.)
Florida Inclusion Network. (2006). F.A.C.T. folio: Administrative tools for inclusive schools. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.floridainclusionnetwork.com/Uploads/1/docs/AdminFFVol2.pdf
This handy factsheet created by the Florida Inclusion Network offers helpful tips and advice for creating an inclusive school environment. Quick tips and bullet points include “How You Can Support Effective Collaborative Teaching” and “Models of Effective Collaboration.”
Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008, June). Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from
Sponsored by the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, this paper offers a review of the policy surrounding the provision of inclusive services. Among its other numerous offerings is a legal explanation of the concept of “least-restrictive environments” and a comprehensive take on the configuration of inclusive services, including a variety of models.
Institute on Disability/ UCED. (2009). Including Samuel. Website for the film. Accessed on June 23, 2010, from http://www.includingsamuel.com/home.aspx
This is the official Website of Including Samuel, a documentary directed by Dan Habib, whose son Samuel has cerebral palsy. Including Samuel—as its name and inclusion here suggest—takes a detailed look at Habib family’s determination that Samuel share in the various facets of their lives. Included at the site are information about viewing the film, as well as a number of resources related to inclusion.
Kluth, P. (2005). Is your school inclusive? Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.paulakluth.com/readings/inclusive-schooling/is-your-school-inclusive/
This useful Website (available in a handy printable version) offers a detailed, bulleted checklist for those who wish to assess the extent to which their school represents an inclusive environment. On hand are thoughts and reflections on the characteristics of inclusive schools, as well as a look at the transition between inclusion as a theory and a practical application.
LeadScape. (n.d.). Schoolwide instructional design: Clustering students and teachers for optimal early intervening. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://ea.niusileadscape.org/docs/FINAL_PRODUCTS/LearningCarousel/InstructionalDesign08.pdf
These slides, produced by LeadScape, stand as a useful tool for creating in-school support structures for early intervening. Examples of support structure “maps”—as well as blank versions of same—are on hand to guide teachers and school leaders as they make their way through the process.
Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education. (n.d.). Tools and strategies for inclusive schools. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.mcieinclusiveschools.org/
This Website of the Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education is an invaluable resource for those planning to create an inclusive school environment. On hand are resources and links, an extensive bibliography, and detailed notes on district, school, and student planning.
NIUSI. (2006). Systemic change framework rubrics assessment handbook: Rubrics for urban schools: Assessing education for all. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/rubrics/assessment_handbook.pdf?v_document_name=Assessment%20Handbook
Under the assumption that schools will benefit from a shared, systemic approach to creating and maintaining better and more inclusive environments, the National Institute for Urban School Improvement presents this module of rubrics for everything from the assessment of district-level reform efforts, to those of individual professionals within the school.
NIUSI. (2000, June). Improving education: The promise of inclusive schooling. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/IE02.pdf?v_document_name=Improving%20Education%20Booklet
This resource produced by the National Institute for Urban School Improvement presents a detailed examination of what inclusion is and how and why schools ought to make efforts toward inclusive reform. On hand are specific stories about the benefits of inclusion for students with disabilities, as well as helpful record sheets for those who wish to visit inclusive school and take notes about their characteristics.
Rozycki, E. G. (2004). Mission, vision & delusion in schooling. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.newfoundations.com/EGR/VisionDelusion.html
This amusing and informative take on the way that school mission statements tend toward grandeur offers reflections on “Assessing Visions and Missions” and “Educator Dementia,” while urging schools to come “at the vision and mission statements from a research and implementation perspective.”
Schwartz, I. S., & Green, C. (2002, December). Inclusive schools: Good for kids: Reconsidering our definition of inclusion and redefining its outcomes for all children. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from
Prepared by the National Institute for Urban School Improvement, this resource offers a detailed definition of inclusion and outcomes for all students. On hand also is a model for a Community of Practice and reflections on the interactions and relationships necessary to create and maintain a successful environment of inclusion.
TeacherVision. (1993). Keys to successful inclusion: Including students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/special-education/resource/2972.html
This convenient and informative checklist offers an at-a-glance overview of inclusion and what is required to create an school-wide inclusive environment. Included are bullets on school support and collaboration, as well as offerings on instructional methods and attitudes beliefs. A sample scenario and bibliography round out the effort.
UNESCO. (2005). Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001402/140224e.pdf
This offering from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization offers a systemic plan for the inclusion of students of all kinds in the general education curriculum. Positing inclusion as a human right, it argues that the creation of inclusive environments is the only way to fulfill the promise of education to children today and tomorrow. Included are tools for policy makers and educational planners, as well as a bibliography for those who wish to pursue the topic further.