Page 9: References & Additional Resources

To cite this Module, please use the following:

The IRIS Center. (2008). RTI (part 5): A closer look at tier 3. Retrieved from


Al-Otaiba, S., & Torgesen, J. (2007). Effects from intensive standardized kindergarten and first-grade interventions for the prevention of reading difficulties. In S. R. Jimerson, M. K. Burns, & A. M. VanDerHeyden (Eds.), The handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention (pp. 212–222). New York: Springer.

Bender, W. N., & Shores, C. (2007). Response to intervention: A practical guide for every teacher. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Doolittle, J. (2007). Responsiveness to intervention: 1997 to 2007. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(5), 8–12.

Cavanaugh, C. L. (2007). Packet of handouts for “collecting and using progress monitoring data to maintain flexible groups and target instruction.” National Reading First Conference, St. Louis, MO.

Chard, D. J., & Dickson, S. V. (1999). Phonological awareness: Instructional and assessment guidelines. Retrieved December 19, 2007,

Council of Exceptional Children. (2007). Position on response to intervention (RTI): The unique role of special education and special educators. Retrieved January 23, 2008, from

Florida Center for Reading Research. (2003). Fundations. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from

Florida Center for Reading Research. (2004). SuccessMaker Enterprise. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from

Florida Center for Reading Research. (2006). Frequently asked questions about reading instruction. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from

Foundations: Wilson language Basics for K–3. (2005). Bridging phonics and literacy. Retrieved October 18, 2007,

Fuchs, D., Stecker, P. M., & Fuchs, L. S. (in press). Why special education must be RTI’s final tier in a standards-driven No-Child Left-Behind world. In D. Fuchs, S. R. Vaughn, & L. S. Fuchs (Eds.), Responsiveness to intervention. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2007). A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39, 14–20.

Instructional Strategies Online. (n.d.). What is explicit teaching? Retrieved February 20, 2008, from

Kalyanpur, M. (2003). A Challenge to professionals: Developing cultural reciprocity with culturally diverse families. Focal Point, 17(1), 1–5.

Kame’enui, E. J. (2007). A new paradigm: Responsiveness to intervention. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39, 6–7.

Klingner, J., Sorrells, A. M., & Barrera, M. T. (2007). Considerations when implementing response to intervention with culturally and linguistically diverse students. In D. Haager, J. Klingner, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Evidence-based reading practices for response to intervention (pp. 223–245). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., & Barletta, L.M. (2006). English language learners who struggle with reading: Language acquisition or LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 108–128.

Klingner, J. K., Sorrells, A. M., & Barrera, M. T. (2007). Considerations when implementing response to intervention with culturally and linguistically diverse students. In D. Haager, J. Klingner, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Evidence-based reading practices for response to intervention (pp. 223–245). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Klotz, M. B., & Canter, A. (2007). LD online: Response to intervention (RTI): A primer for parents. Retrieved October 15, 2007, from

Linan-Thompson, S., Cirino, P. T., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Determining English language learners’ response to intervention: Questions and some answers. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 30, 185–196.

Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2006). The response to intervention of English language learners at risk for reading problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 390–398.

McGraw-Hill. (n.d.) SRA reading materials: Corrective reading. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from

McGraw-Hill. (n.d.) SRA reading materials: Reading mastery. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2007). NCLD-IDEA 2004 parent guide: Referral/ request for evaluation, part II. Retrieved October 15, 2007, from

National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center. (2007). NECTAC: Procedural safeguards and complaint resolution under IDEA. Retrieved October 30, 2007, from

Salend, S. J., & Salinas, A. (2003). Language differences or learning difficulties: The work of the multidisciplinary team. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35(4), 36–43.

Shores, C., Morgan, V., & Bender, W. N. (2007). Implementing RTI to meet the needs of all learners. In W. N. Bender & C. Shores (Eds.), Response to intervention: A practical guide for every teacher (pp. 67–89). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Smith, D. D. (2003). Introduction to special education: Teaching in an age of opportunity (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Sopris West Educational Services. (n.d.) Read well program overview. Retrieved October 18, 2007, from

Stecker, P. M. (2007). Tertiary intervention: Using progress monitoring with intensive services. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39, 50–57.

Taylor, C. E. (2008, winter). Response to intervention and learning disabilities. Discovery: Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities, 19, 4.

United States Department of Education. (n.d.) Building the legacy: IDEA 2004. Retrieved December 6, 2007, from

United States Department of Education. (2003). National symposium of learning disabilities in English language learners. Washington, D.C.

United States Department of Education. (2003). President’s commission on excellence in special education. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from

United States Department of Education. (2007). Questions and answers on response to intervention (RTI) and early intervening services. Retrieved March 20, 2007,

United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary. (2004). National symposium on learning disabilities in English language learners, October 14–15, 2003: Symposium Summary. Washington, D.C.

Vockell, E. L., & Schwartz, E. M. (1992). Computers in the classroom (2nd ed.). Watsonville, CA: Mitchell/ McGraw-Hill.

Voyager Expanded Learning. Voyager passport program description. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from

Wilkinson, C. Y., Ortiz, A. A., Robertson, P. M., & Kushner, M. I. (2006). English language learners with reading-related LD: Linking data from multiple sources to make eligibility determinations. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 129–141.

Zirkel, P. A. (2007). What does the law say? Teaching Exceptional Children, 39, 65–67.

Additional Resources

Books and Articles

Colorado Department of Education, Special Education Services Unit. (2002). Fast facts: Critical questions about the special education process and English language learners. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from

This handy fact sheet outlines a number of critical questions to ask before English language learners (ELL) are referred to special education services, before the assessment process is undertaken, and before the relevant services are designed.

Division for Learning Disabilities. (2007). Thinking about response to intervention and learning disabilities: A teacher’s guide. Arlington, VA: Author.

This guide to response to intervention created by the Council for Exceptional Children, Division for Learning Disabilities, is filled with useful tips and information for teachers to help them to understand the RTI process and to become more fully engaged participants during the RTI implementation process in their own schools and districts.

Figueroa, R. A., & Newsome, P. (2006). The diagnosis of LD in English learners: Is it nondiscriminatory? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), 206–214.

This study takes a close look at the state of assessment testing in schools with an eye toward determining how effective have been various acts of Congress in eliminating discriminatory testing. The authors find that, as regards English language learners (ELL), the authors of tests meant to assess learning disabilities do not make appropriate use of the relevant guidelines in the development of said testing vehicles.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Compton, D. L. (2012). Smart RTI: A next-generation approach to multilevel prevention. Exceptional Children, 78(3), 263–279.

In this review of the RTI method, the authors revisit the history and efficacy of the approach and offer some suggestions about how a somewhat modified “Smart RTI” might better address the needs of future students. On hand are discussions of levels versus tiers, secondary prevention for struggling students, and two-stage screening, among much more.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D. L., et al. (2007). Dynamic assessment as responsiveness to intervention: A scripted protocol to identify young at-risk readers. TEACHING: Exceptional Children, 39(5), 58–63.

This article describes an alternative (and augmentation) to the traditional methods of assessment testing, one that emphasizes an ongoing process of intervention and seeks to avoid the “wait to fail” pitfall of earlier assessment vehicles.

Hoover, J. J., & Love, E. (2011). Supporting school-based response to intervention: A practitioner’s model. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), pp. 40–48.

This article examines the efforts of a trio of schools to implement the response to intervention model and how each of them fared. The authors break down what they consider key elements to successful implementation and consider the various roadblocks to that success that schools are likely to encounter during the process. The article concludes with further thoughts for practitioners.

Klingner, J. & Artiles, A. J. (2206). English language learners struggling to learn to read: Emergent scholarship on linguistic differences and learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 386–389.

This article examines the explosion of the English language learner (ELL) population and the correlating increase in inappropriate referrals to special education.

Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2006). The response to intervention of English language learners at risk for reading problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 390–398.

This study follows the English language and reading instruction of a group of first-grade English language learners (ELL) identified as “at risk,” and subsequently finds that those who received early intervention fared better than did those who took part only in their school’s traditional reading curriculum for struggling readers.

Yell, M. L., Shriner, J. G., & Katsiyannis, A. (2006). Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2002 and IDEA regulations of 2006: Implications for educators, administrators, and teacher trainers. Focus on Exceptional Children, 39(1), 1–24.

In this article, the authors offer a detailed overview of how the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Act and No Child Left Behind have affected the special education landscape and suggest that in order to successfully implement the measures outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEAI) teachers, administrators, and teacher trainers will find it necessary to carefully follow subsequent changes to the relevant statutes.

Online Resources

Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (John Hopkins University). Best Evidence Encyclopedia.

This online clearinghouse offers information on the researched evaluations of numerous educational programs in a coherently arranged and easy-to-navigate format.

Florida State University Learning Systems Institute. The Florida Center for Reading Research.

This site exists to broadcast research-validated information regarding literacy and assessment. Included are articles related to RTI implementation and information for principals about how to improve reading outcomes in their schools.

Institute for the Development of Education Achievement, University of Oregon. Big Ideas in Beginning Reading.

This Website focusing on the five core components of reading offers information and resources to educators and parents with the goal of ensuring that all students are able to read at grade-level by the close of their third-grade year.

National Center on Response to Intervention

This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”

RTI Action Network

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.

United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (n.d.) Tool kit on teaching and assessing students with disabilities: Responsiveness to intervention in the SLD determination process. Retrieved on June 11, 2008, from

This site offers an overview of the Response to Intervention model, with an emphasis on identifying students who have specific learning disabilities as outlined in IDEA ’04. Information in terminology, differences in intervention at the various tiers, and the determination of responsiveness is also available.

United States Department of Education. What Works Clearinghouse.

Browse this site to read the latest from the U.S. Department of Education. Topics include “Beginning Reading,” “English Language Learners,” and “Dropout Prevention.” Online resources allow users to create their own “Effectiveness Rating” chart.

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