Page 14: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2012). Secondary Reading Instruction: Teaching Vocabulary and Comprehension in the Content Areas. Retrieved from
ACT. (2011). 2011 condition of college and career readiness. Retrieved on July 24, 2012,from www.act.org/readiness/2011
Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Eighth grade: Social studies background knowledge. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://explicitinstruction.org/?page_id=364
Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Vocabulary instruction: Sixth-grade language arts. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://explicitinstruction.org/?page_id=317
Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Adolescent literary toolkit. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://programs.ccsso.org/projects/adolescent_literacy_toolkit/
Center on Instruction. (2011). Webinar series: Using Doing What Works (DWW) resources to support SIG grantees in adolescent literacy. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/webinar-series-using-doing-what-works-dww-resources-to-support-sig-grantees-in-adolescent-literacy—text-discussion
Frayer, D. A., Frederick, W. C., & Klausmeier, H. G. (1969). A schema for testing the level of concept mastery (technical report no. 16). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning.
Hall, T., & Strangman, N. (2002). Graphic organizers. Retrieved on July 24, 2012,from http://aim.cast.org/sites/aim.cast.org/files/NCACgo.pdf
Heller, R., & Greenleaf, C. L. (2007). Literacy instruction in the content areas: Getting to the core of middle and high school improvement. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://www.all4ed.org/files/LitCon.pdf
Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J.(2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A practice guide. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/adlit_pg_082608.pdf
Kosanovich, M. L., Reed, D. K., & Miller, D. H. (2010). Bringing literacy strategies into content instruction: Professional learning for secondary-level teachers. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved on July
24, 2012, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Bringing%20Literacy%20Strategies%20
Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk. (2009). 8th grade TALA, unit 2,module 3, slide 10: Using a Frayer Model. Texas Adolescent Literacy Academies video.
Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk. (2009). 8th gade TALA, unit 2,module 3, slide 13: Using a Frayer Model: Student practice. Texas Adolescent Literacy Academies video.
Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk. (2009). 8th grade TALA, unit 7,module 3, slide 19: Generating level 3 questions: Student practice. Texas Adolescent Literacy Academies video.
McCray, A. D., & Vaughn, S. (2001). Not all students learn to read by third grade: Middle school students speak out about their reading disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 35(1), 17–30. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from
National Science Teachers Association. (2004). Making thinking visible: A method to encourage science writing in upper elementary grades. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://science.nsta.org/enewsletter/2005-11/sc0411_20.pdf
Raphael, T. E. (1982). Question-answering strategies for children. Reading Teacher, 36(2), 186–191.
Raphael, T. E., & Au, K. H. (2005). QAR: Enhancing comprehension and test taking across grades and content areas. Reading Teacher, 59, 206–221. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://schoolriseusa.com/SRPublic/researcharticles/QAR.pdf
Region 15. (2010). Graphic organizers. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://www.region15.org/subsite/dist/page/graphic-organizers-3114
Southwest Georgia RESA. (n.d.). Graphic organizers: Mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.sw-georgia.resa.k12.ga.us/Math.html. No longer available.
Strangeman, N., & Hall, T. (2004). Background knowledge: Curriculum enhancement report. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://www.dcccde.ca.gov/documents/Anita%20Archer%20-%202012/A.%20Archer%20-%20NCAC_BK.pdf
Torgesen, J. K., Houston, D. D., Rissman, L. M., Decker, S. M., Roberts, G.,Vaughn, S., Wexler, J. Francis, D. J, Rivera, M. O., Lesaux, N. (2007). Academic literacy instruction for adolescents: A guidance document from the Center on Instruction. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Academic%20Literacy.pdf
Beach, K. D., Sanchez, V., Flynn, L. J., & O’Connor, R. R. (2015). Teaching academic vocabulary to adolescents with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(1), 36–44.
In this journal article, the authors overview the importance of teaching academic vocabulary and provide a detailed five-step process for doing so. In addition, the authors cover word selection, the presentation of words in meaningful contexts, and sentence writing opportunities. A number of helpful sample classroom scripts and activities are also included.
Capin, P., & Vaughn, S. (2017). Improving reading and social studies learning for secondary students with reading disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 249–261.
This article examines the effect on student literacy outcomes of secondary content-area subjects in which the method of instruction tends to rely heavily on sources of information other than text. To help promote better reading comprehension, the authors recommend the use of Promoting Adolescents’ Comprehension of Text (PACT) and collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as effective methods of developing reading comprehension skills while also addressing the need to build content knowledge.
Kennedy, M. J., Lloyd, J. W., Cole, M. T., & Ely, E. (2012). Specially designed vocabulary instruction: What does high quality instruction look like? Retrieved on September 10, 2012, from http://tecplus.org/articles/article/1
The authors of this article describe and illustrate a number of research-validated methods for teaching vocabulary across content areas. Included is information on vocabulary in mathematics and science instruction, a detailed explanation of the Vocabulary Planning Framework (VPF) method, and a number of informative movie clips illustrating phonological awareness instruction and word learning strategies, among other topics of interest.
Kroeger, S. D., Burton, C., & Preston, C. (2009). Integrating evidence-based practices in middle science reading. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 6–15. Retrievedon July 25, 2012, from http://cec.metapress.com/content/lnj7p46v22078545/fulltext.pdf
This article about improving reading comprehension in science classes examines in detail a modified version of the PALS strategy, PALSscience. The authors include notes on identifying main-idea statements, overseeing peer mediation, and creating “integrity checklists” to assess implementation fidelity.
Roberts, C. A., Leko, M. M., & Wilkerson, K. L. (2013). New directions in reading instruction for adolescents with significant cognitive disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 34(5), 305–317.
This review of the research into the reading instruction targeted at adolescents with disabilities concludes that many classrooms are not yet taking significant advantage of recent innovations in the field, though some are now beginning to do so. On hand here are notes on the current state of reading instruction among young people with cognitive disabilities and a discussion of how instruction can be made more comprehensive and brought into greater alignment with current recommendations issued from the field of adolescent literacy.
Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2008). Teaching disciplinary literacy to adolescents: Rethinking content-area literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 40–59. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E69AD5B4-7C7C-4662-9F59-F3BFA9933FA0/0/ShanahanArticle061909.pdf
This article examines the efficacy of the long-practiced “every teacher a teacher of reading teacher” approach across content areas. The authors discover that the methods used to teach comprehension vary widely depending on the nature of the content at hand and how individual instructors themselves approach and comprehend that subject matter. Recommendations for reading strategies to improve content-area literacy are included.
Swanson, E., Vaughn, S., & Wexler, J. (2017). Enhancing adolescents’ comprehension of text by building vocabulary knowledge. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 50(2), 84–94. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059917720777
What are reasonable vocabulary learning goals for teachers to set for their students? The authors of this article set out to answer that question while overviewing teacher-directed explicit vocabulary instruction, vocabulary routines, co-teaching strategies, and more.
Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Schnakenberg, J. B., Fall, A. M., Vaughn, M. g., & Wexler, J. (2015). Improving reading comprehension for high school students with disabilities: Effects for comprehension and school retention. Exceptional Children, 82(1), 117–131.
This study follows a group of students through two years of reading comprehension instruction, and finds that extensive interventions for high school students not only produce better reading outcomes but also help to ameliorate the drop-out rates among students most at risk of leaving school early.
Irvin, J. L., Buehl, D. R., & Klemp, R. M. (2007). Reading and the high school student. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishing.
This book is for a wide variety of instructors, administrators, and educators involved in improving reading outcomes for secondary students. At hand are discussions of basic strategies and techniques, as well as ways to spot ineffective learning, methods for assisting struggling readers, and tips for evaluating content-area textbooks, among much else.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012). Improving adolescent literacy. Upper Saddle River,NJ: Pearson Publishing.
This book-length work examines methods for improving secondary reading for students across content-areas. Included are discussions about the effective promotion of comprehension, writing to learn with secondary students, and assessments and high-stakes testing.
Adler, C. R. (2001). Seven strategies to teach students text comprehension. Retrieved on September 18, 2012, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3479/
These briefly outlined reading strategies include downloadable examples of various kinds of graphic organizers (and a link to more). Also on hand are generating questions, recognizing story structure, summarizing, and monitoring comprehension.
Greenleaf, C., & Brown, W. (2007). Reading science for understanding in middle and high school. SchoolsMovingUp Webinar. Retrieved on July 25, 2012, from http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/1532
In this Webinar, two experts on content-area reading discuss the application of “Reading Apprenticeship instructional framework,” an evidence-based approach designed to improve reading outcomes for students in middle and high school.
Heibert, E. (2007). Word lists: Choices and uses. Schools Moving Up Webinar. Retrieved on July 25, 2012, from http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/1786
In this Webinar, an adjunct professor at the University of California at Berkeley and facilitator of the California Vocabulary Forum talks about the utility of vocabulary lists in reading and vocabulary instruction across ability levels.
International Reading Association & National Council of Teachers of English. (2012).Using QARs to develop comprehension and reflective reading habits. Read Write Think lesson plan. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/using-qars-develop-comprehension-232.html
This detailed lesson plan on comprehension and reading habits includes day-by-day breakdowns for instructors, student objectives, notes on demonstration strategies, and ideas for extending the lesson. Be sure to click through the tabs for a useful section of related resources, among much else.
Maryland Public Television. (2003). Monitoring comprehension. Retrieved on July 25,2012, from http://www.thinkport.org/a4092856-945a-4952-aceb-9f606e84af36.asset
This short document, produced by Maryland Public Television, includes a discussion of reading comprehension, specifically a student’s ability to monitor his or her own comprehension while reading. Also on hand is a short article about Thomas Edison and an exercise that teachers can use to gauge whether their students have comprehended information about the famous inventor.
This Website dedicated to improved reading instruction for new and struggling readers offers a wealth of resources and materials, including an online library, materials for teacher support, and the latest research on evidence-based practices and programs, among much else.