Page 11: References & Additional Resources

To cite this Module, please use the following:

The IRIS Center. (2005). How people learn: Presenting the learning theory and inquiry cycle on which the IRIS Modules are built. Retrieved from


Bransford, J. D., Brophy, S., & Williams, S. (2000). When computer technologies meet the learning sciences: Issues and opportunities. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(1), 59–84.

Bransford, J. D., Vye, N. J., & Bateman, H. (2002). Creating high-quality learning environments: Guidelines from research on how people learn. In P. A. Graham & N. G. Stacey (Eds.), The knowledge economy and post secondary education: Report of a workshop (pp. 159–197). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Bransford, J. D., Vye, N., Bateman, H., Brophy, S., & Roselli, B. J. (2004). Vanderbilt’s Amigo3 project: Knowledge of How People Learn enters cyberspace (1). In T. M. Duffy & J. R. Kirkley (Eds.), Learner-centered theory and practice in distance education: Cases for higher education (pp. 209–234). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Brophy, S. P. (2000). Guidelines for modular design. Unpublished manuscript, Vanderbilt University.

National Research Council. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school (expanded edition). Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J. D. Bransford, A. L., Brown, A., & R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Committee on the Foundations of Assessment. J. W. Pellegrino, N. Chudowshky, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Board on Testing and Assessment, Center of Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, K. (1997). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Additional Resources


Bottge, B. A., Rueda, E., Serlin, R. C., Hung, Y., & Kwon, J. M. (2007). Shrinking achievement differences with anchored math problems: Challenges and possibilities. The Journal of Special Education, 41(1), 31–49.

This article details the results of a study to test the efficacy of the
Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) method on the math achievement of a group of students that included a cohort with disabilities. The research determined that all students improved, with students with disabilities doing so on an equivalent (if lower-scoring) trajectory. Some notes and recommendations for the future course of such research are offered.

Cordray, D. S., Pion, G. M., Harris, A., & Norris, P. (2003). The value of the VaNTH Engineering Research Center: Assessing and evaluating the effects of educational innovations on large educational research projects in engineering. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 22, 47–54.

This article describes the application of the principles of
HPL to coursework in engineering. It discusses the ongoing process of incorporating HPL into instruction and describes preliminary findings of the learning outcomes of this ambitious project.

PT3 Group at Vanderbilt. (2003). Three Amigos: Using anchored modular inquiry to help prepare future teachers. Educational Technology: Research and Development, 51(1), 105–123.

This article offers descriptions of the process of incorporating the principles of HPL into several college courses are provided. Both students’ and instructors’ feedback on the process are included.

Schwartz, D. L., Lin, X., Brophy, S., & Bransford, J. D. (1999b). Toward the development of flexibly adaptive instructional designs. In C. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: New Paradigms of Instructional Theory, Vol. II (pp. 183–213). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

This chapter describes the development of the
STAR Legacy cycle and its application in several elementary school classrooms.


National Research Council (1999). How people learn: bridging research and practice. Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. M. S. Donovan, J. D. Bransford, & J. W. Pellegrino (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

This book summarizes the feedback received by the editors about the first edition of the
How People Learn book as well as their response to this feedback.

Online Resources

Online version of the How People Learn book

This Website provides an online version of the NRC
How People Learn book that was used as a primary resource for this Module. Access is free to all users.

The VaNTH Website This Website describes the ongoing development of the VaNTH project.

The research project’s purpose is to help instructors in the engineering departments at Vanderbilt, Northwestern, MIT, and Harvard incorporate the principles of HPL into their individual courses and to use HPL to structure their overall programs of study in engineering.

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