Page 12: References & Additional Resources

To cite this Module, please use the following:

The IRIS Center. (2008). PALS: A reading strategy for high school. Retrieved from


Barton, R. (2004). The two r’s: Literacy lessons for high school. Northwest Education, 10(1). Retrieved June 23, 2008, from 

Class Wide Peer Tutoring Program. (2003). Retrieved August 13, 2008, from 

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., & Simmons, D. C. (1997). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 174–206. 

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Thompson, A., Al Otaiba, S., Yen, L., Yang, N. J., & Braun, M. (2001). Is reading important in reading-readiness programs? A randomized field trial with teachers as program implementers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 251–267. 

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Thompson, A., Svenson, E., Yen, L., Al Otaiba, S., Yang, N., McMaster, K., Prentice, K., Kazdan, S., & Saenz, L. (2001). Peer-Assisted Learning
Strategies in reading: Extensions for kindergarten, first grade, and high school. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 15–21. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D. & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309–318. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., Mathes, P., Prentice, K., & Saenz, L. (1997). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for high school students.Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309–318. 

Fulk, B., & King, K. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring at work. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(2), 49–53. 

Mastropieri, M., Scruggs, T. E., Spencer, V., & Fontana, J. (2003). Promoting success in high school world history: Peer tutoring versus guided notes. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(1), 52–65. 

Mcmaster, K., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Research on Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: The promise and limitations of peer-mediated instruction. Reading & WritingQuarterly, 225–25. 

Moreno Valley High School Remedial Reading Curriculum. Retrieved July 10, 2008, from

Additional Resources


The Access Center. (2004). Using peer tutoring to facilitate access. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from 

This information brief from the Access Center advocates peer tutoring as a means through which to offer students with disabilities greater access to the general education curriculum. Included is a description of various methods of peer instruction as well as references and information for readers who wish to read further.

Calhoon, M., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). The effects of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies and curriculum-based measurement on the mathematics performance of secondary students
with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 24(4), 235–245. 

This report details a study in which ten classes of high-school students were exposed to PALS/ CBM as a means of improving their math scores. The authors find that such exposure did indeed increase the scores of the students when compared to students in a control. A further discussion of these results follows.

Calhoon, M. B. (2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of learning disabilities, 38(5), 424–433. 

In this article, the author examines a study meant to gauge the efficacy of peer-mediated reading instruction (in this case Linguistic Skills Training [LST] and Peer Assisted Learning Strategies [PALS]) among middle-school students identified as struggling readers. Having observed the outcomes of students who received peer-mediated instruction and those who were taught through a more traditional whole-class approach, the author finds that those students in the peer-mediated groups showed greater improvement across a number of relevant skills, including comprehension and letter-word identification. A discussion of the study’s practical implications is included.

Kroeger, S. D., Burton, C., Preston, C. (2009). Integrating evidence-based practices in middle science reading. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 6–15. 

This article looks at the difficulties faced by struggling readers in content areas such as science, where the current emphasis on testing has tended to disengage students from more worthwhile and productive forms of inquiry. As an antidote, the authors recommend the use of peer-mediated instruction, through which students can once again become active participants in the “sense-making” activities through which scientific information is best gained.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Graetz, J. E. (2003). Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26(2), 103–116. 

This article features a detailed discussion of the kinds of reading challenges commonly faced by high school students with disabilities. A number of research-validated practices (including a peer-tutoring method) are described, and the implications for further research discussed.

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T., Mohler, L., Beranek, M., Spencer, V., Boon, R. T., & Talbott, E. (2001). Can middle school students with serious reading difficulties help each other and learn anything? Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(1), 18–27. 

This article treats of an investigation into the efficacy of peer-assisted learning among students with learning disabilities and mild retardation. The researchers found a number of benefits and improvements associated with the peer-instruction method. A discussion of the implications the course of further research is included.

Web Resources

PALS Website. Teaching materials, reading samples, high school reading manual. Retrieved June 17, 2008, from 

This section of the PALS Website includes handy materials for teachers who wish to implement PALS in their classrooms. Included is a list of objectives, materials outline, and teacher scripts. The resources are in GIF format for easy downloading and printing.

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