Page 13: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2006). RTI (part 3): Reading instruction. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/rti03-reading/
Antunez, B., DiCerbo, P. A., & Menken, K. (2000). Framing effective practice: topics and issues in educating english language learners. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Center for the Study of Language & Education, The George Washington University.
Babyak, A. E., Koorland, M., & Mathes, P. G. (2000). The effects of story mapping on instruction on reading comprehension of students with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 25(3), 239–258.
Blachowicz, C. L. Z., Fisher, P. J., & Watts-Taffe, S. (2005). Integrated vocabulary instruction: meeting the needs of diverse learners in grades K–5. Naperville: Learning Point Associates.
Carnine, D., Silbert, J., & Kameenui, E. (1997). Direct instruction reading (3rd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/ Prentice Hall.
Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA). (2003, June). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Washington, DC: Partnership for Reading. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED458536.pdf
Chard, D. J., Vaughn S., & Tyler, B. J. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(5), 389–406.
Curtis, C. P. (1999). Bud, not buddy. New York: Dell Yearling, p. 144.
Denton, C. A.,Vaugh, S., & Fletcher, J. M. (2003). Bringing research-based practice in reading intervention to scale. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 201–211.
Diaz-Rico, L. T., & Weed, K. Z. (1995). The crosscultural language and academic development handbook: A complete K–12 reference guide. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M., & Watson Moody, S. (1999). Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65, 399–415.
Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J. Fletcher, J. M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1) 37–55.
Foorman, B. (Ed.). (2003). Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: Bringing science to scale. Baltimore: York Press.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Peer-assisted learning strategies: Promoting word recognition, fluency, and reading comprehension in young children. The Journal Of Special Education, 39(1), 34–44.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38 (1), 57–61.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D. J., & Compton, D. L. (2004). Monitoring early reading development in first grade: Word identification fluency versus nonsense word fluency. Council for Exceptional Children, 71, 7–21.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2004). Using CBM for progress monitoring. 2004 Summer Institute Manual. National Center for Student Progress Monitoring [Online]. Washington, DC: National Center on Student Progress Monitoring.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2006). Implementing responsiveness-to-intervention to identify learning disabilities. Perspectives, 32(1), 39–43.
Gantos, J. (1990). Happy birthday Rotten Ralph. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Gersten, R., Baker, S., Pugach, M., Scanlon, D., & Chard, D. (2001). Contemporary research on special education teaching. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, pp. 695–722.
Greenwood, S. C. (2002). Making words matter: Vocabulary student in the content areas. The Clearing House, 75(5), 258–264.
Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated instruction. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved June 7, 2006, from http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html
Idol, L. (1987). Group story mapping: A comprehension strategy for both skilled and unskilled readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20(4), 196–205.
Kemper, D., Nathan, R., & Sebranek, P. (1995). Writers express: A handbook for young writers, thinkers, and learners. Washington, DC: Heath and Company, p. 65.
Lehr, F., Osborn, J., & Hiebert, E. H. (2004). A focus on vocabulary. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Retrieved April 26, 2006, from http://www.prel.org/products/re_/ES0419.htm
Levy, S., Coleman, M., & Alsman, B. (2002). Reading instruction for elementary students with emotional/behavioral disorders: What’s a teacher to do? Beyond Behavior, 11(3), 3–10.
Lou, Y., Abrami, P. C., Spence, J. C., Poulsen, C., Chambers, B. & d’Apollonia, S. (1996). Within-class grouping: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 423–254.
Mantione, R. D., & Smead S. (2002). Weaving through words: Using the arts to teach reading-comprehension strategies. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1997). Best practices in promoting reading comprehension in students with learning disabilities: 1976 to 1996. Remedial and Special Education, 18(4), 197–213.
Mathes, P. G., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (1997). Cooperative story mapping. Remedial and Special Education, 18(1), 20–27.
McLaughlin, M. (2003). Guided comprehension in the primary grades. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Moates, L. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (2005, June). Responsiveness to intervention and learning disabilities. Retrieved April 18, 2006, from http://www.nasponline.org/advocacy/RTI%20Final%20August%202005.pdf
National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Pub. No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E. H. (2003). A focus on fluency. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Retrieved March 3, 2006, from http://www.prel.org/products/re_/fluency-1.htm
Partnership for Reading. (2006a). Phonics instruction. Retrieved May 20, 2006, from
http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/explore/phonics.html No longer available.
Partnership for Reading. (2006b). Text comprehension instruction. Retrieved May 25, 2006, from
http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/explore/comprehension.html No longer available.
Pressley, M. (2006). Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Reading Rockets. (2002). Launching young readers: Sounds & symbols. [Video series]. Washington, DC: WETA.
Rowling, J. K. (1997). Harry potter and the sorcerer’s stone. New York: Scholastic, p. 208.
Sensenbaugh.R. (1996). Phonemic awareness: An important early step in learning to read. ERIC Digest. October 20, 2011, from
Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program grades K–3. A critical elements analysis. Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement, College of Education, University of Oregon.
Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2003). Effective reading programs for english language learners (Report No. 66). Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR).
Swanson, P. N., & De La Paz, S. (1998). Teaching effective comprehension strategies to students with learning and reading disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 209–218.
Teacher Reading Academics. (2003). Texas first grade teacher reading academy videos. [Medium of recording DVD]. Austin, TX: University of Texas System/ Texas Education Agency.
Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. (2000). Professional development guide—Reading fluency: Principles for instruction and progress monitoring. Special education adaptation edition. University of Texas at Austin, College of Education. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://meadowscenter.org/vgc/downloads/special_ed/
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, 22 TexReg 5203, S 126.2 (1998). Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=6148
Texas Reading Academics. (2003). Texas second grade teacher reading academy videos. [Medium of recording DVD]. Austin, TX: University of Texas System/ Texas Education Agency.
Texas Reading Academics. (2003). Texas third grade teacher reading academy videos. [Medium of recording DVD]. Austin, TX: University of Texas System/ Texas Education Agency.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). Differentiation of instruction in the elementary grades. ERIC Digest. Retrieved on June 7, 2006, from
University of Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. (2004). Reading strategies and activities resource book. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.meadowscenter.org/vgc/downloads/primary
UTCRLA and Texas Education Agency. (2001). Essential reading strategies for the struggling reader: Activities for an accelerated reading program. Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin, College of Education.
Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin. (2005). Implementing the 3-tier reading model: Reducing reading difficulties for kindergarten through third grade students. (3rd ed.). Austin, TX: University of Texas System/ Texas Education Agency.
Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin. (2005). Introduction to the 3-tier reading model: Reducing reading difficulties for kindergarten through third grade students (3rd ed.). Austin, TX: University of Texas System/ Texas Education Agency.
Vaughn, S., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2004). Research-based methods of reading instruction: Grades K–3. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Verhoeven, L., & Snow, C. E. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R & D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Blake, A. (1998, Fall Special Supplement). Putting research to use: Activities that help children read. The Tutor. Retrieved June 10, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/learns/tutor/fall1998/fall1998ss.pdf
This article summarizes 13 core understandings about learning to read and includes activity ideas for helping students master these core areas. The activities can easily be modified to fit different needs.
Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2006). Improving the reading achievement of America’s children: 10 research-based principles.
Retrieved June 10, 2006, from http://www.ciera.org/library/instresrc/principles/10acprin.pdf
This one-page document contains concise yet thorough principles for parents and preschool and elementary teachers for developing excellent reading skills in American students.
Coyne, M. D., & Koriakin, T. A. (2017). What do beginning special educators need to know about intensive reading interventions? TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 239–248.
Here the authors stress both the crucial importance of elementary reading instruction to student success, as well as the special challenge posed by students with disabilities, for whom reading is a primary area of difficulty. In response, the authors promote a pair of effective practices, explicit decoding instruction and explicit vocabulary instruction. A list of reliable resources for further exploration is also included.
Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1998). What reading does for the mind. American Educator, 22, 8–15.
The authors review research that points out how reading volume affects students’ acquisition of vocabulary, general knowledge, cognitive ability, and verbal intelligence. This article concludes by encouraging teachers of low-achieving students that reading is a habit that can clearly help students who may seem helpless.
Honig, B. (1997, September). Reading the right way: What research and best practices say about eliminating failure among beginning readers. The School Administrator. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.aasa.org/SchoolAdministratorArticle.aspx?id=15708
Honig advocates teaching reading to students using “a thinking phonics program that strives for understanding of the alphabetic principle and uses engaging activities to help students learn it.” He gives evidence for the value of teaching skills such as decoding and phonemic awareness.
International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1998). Learning to read and write: Developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSREAD98.PDF
This is a position statement (16 pages) intended to provide guidance to teachers and childcare providers so that young children will learn not only to read and write but also to enjoy reading and writing. This publication includes many practical, research-based tips for teaching preschoolers, Kindergarteners, and students in grades 1–3.
Matson, B. (1996). Whole language or phonics? Teachers and researchers find the middle ground most fertile. The Harvard Education Letter, 12(2), 1–5.
The author provides a concise look at the whole-language-versus-phonics debate and gives evidence for why a balanced approach is most effective for student learning.
McMaster, K. L., Kung, S., Han, I., & Cao, M. (2008). Peer-assisted learning strategies: A “tier 1” approach to promoting English learners’ response to intervention. Exceptional Children, 74(2), 194–214.
This study compared the effectiveness of the PALS among groups of kindergartner English learners (ELs). The authors find that students who took part in PALS tended to outperform their peers who received alternate interventions. The implications of the study—and its limitations—are discussed in detail.
Solari, E. J., Denton, C. A., & Haring, C. (2017). How to reach first-grade struggling readers: An integrated instructional approach. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(3), 149–159.
This article lays out a process for helping struggling readers to become better and more proficient ones. The authors cover the basic principles of an integrated reading framework, as well as characteristics of effective reading instruction, comprehension instruction, and tier 2 foundational skills instruction, among much else.
Tennessee State Improvement Grant. (2007, November 11). Helping your child at home: Reading strategies parents can use. (UT publication No. RO1-1704-058-005-08). Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Center for Literary Studies.
This informative publication––edited by Dr. Reggie Curran and reviewed by Dr. Sandy H. Smith––includes definitions of key reading skills (e.g., “Phonemic Awareness,” “Comprehension”) and what parents can do to promote them in their children, as well as vocabulary building strategies and helpful tips for selecting age-appropriate reading materials.
Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Kouzekanani, K., Bryant, D. P., Dickson, S., & Blozis, S. A. (2003). Reading instruction grouping for students with reading difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 24 (5), 301–315.
This article examines a study in the relative outcomes of grouping formats related to the performance of struggling second-grade readers. Three grouping combinations were tested—one teacher to one student, one teacher to three students, and one teacher to ten students. The researchers find that students in all groups demonstrated significant improvements along a number of skill sets (e.g., fluency and comprehension), but that students in the 1:1 and 1:3 groups had higher scores than did those in the 1:10 group. The article concludes with a discussion of the study’s practical implications and suggestion for possible areas for future research.
Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Adams discusses the broad historical and educational contexts of reading instruction and provides reviews of research on phonics instruction and the reading process. According to Adams, decades of reading research clearly supports direct phonics instruction along with immersion in meaningful texts. The final chapters of this book provide a valuable discussion of ways to increase the efficiency of early reading instruction through instruction in areas such as phonological awareness, print awareness, and the phonemic structure of words.
Honig, B. (1996). Teaching our children to read: The role of skills in a comprehensive reading program. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Honig writes that students learn to read when educators have a plan for systematic skills development within in a language- and literature-rich environment. He clearly describes the skills that must be learned and outlines when they must be learned to ensure that students will be reading age-appropriate material fluently and with a high level of comprehension by the end of elementary school.
Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. (The Report of the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [Electronic version]. Retrieved August 18, 2006, from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030906418X/
This book describes the problem of reading difficulties in children from preschool to grade three and then offers research-based analyses of preventions and interventions. Also included are recommendations for practice, policy, and research.
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) is a set of standardized, individually administered measures of early literacy development. They are designed to be short (one-minute) fluency measures used to regularly monitor the development of prereading and early reading skills. Measures are available for free download.
Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement (IDEA) http://reading.uoregon.edu
This Website contains research-based information about the five “big ideas” in beginning reading (phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency with text, vocabulary, and comprehension) and emphasizes continuing assessment. Helpful tips on instruction are included throughout.
The National Center on Progress Monitoring http://www.studentprogress.org
This Website provides a wealth of information about progress monitoring and formative assessment, including Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM). Click the “library” link to access newsletters and research articles.
National Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/
This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”
PALS: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/
Visit the official PALS Website for resources and commercial products related to peer-assisted learning strategies. Visitors will find Modules about PALS reading and math, as well as training resources, research into the effectiveness of the strategies, products for teachers, and more.
Reading Rockets http://www.readingrockets.org
This national multimedia project offers information and resources on how young kids learn to read, why so many struggle, and how caring adults (parents, teachers, childcare providers, and school leaders) can help. The Website offers reading news headlines, research-based articles, tips for parents and educators, video interviews with children’s book authors, and a monthly e-newsletter.
RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/
A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.