What procedures might Ms. Lin suggest?
Page 8: Support It
Mr. Carter recognizes that, although his students now know the purpose of the writing strategy and have memorized all of its steps, they are not yet ready to use the strategy independently. It’s now time for Mr. Carter to integrate the next critical instructional stage—support the students. In order to support his students in becoming independent writers, Mr. Carter will:
- Collaboratively use the writing and self-regulation strategies with his students
- Use strategy charts and graphic organizers
- Make sure they work toward attaining their initial writing goals
- Increase his students’ goals gradually until their final goals have been reached
- Offer constructive feedback guidance and positive reinforcement
- “Fade” (or modulate) his support based on their individual needs
- Discuss with his students ways to maintain, or continue to use, the strategy
- Support his students so that they are able to use the strategy in other settings
To better understand this concept, consider the analogy of learning to ride a bike. For example, a girl might know the parts of the bike and how the bike works, but she still needs some help before she is ready to ride on her own. Her dad might start by holding her as she slowly pedals, but then he gradually lessens his support so that his child can acquire a feel for balancing and pedaling. Next, the dad will run along beside the bike as she rides, just so she knows that he’ll be there to catch her. And then, at last, his daughter is ready to ride on her own. This process can be described as scaffolding, and it works the same for riding a bike as it does for strategy instruction.
Keep in Mind
The teacher may need to provide extended student support for students who are struggling before they are ready to practice the strategy on their own.
Mr. Carter encourages his students to take ownership of the writing strategy by providing opportunities for his students to practice the first steps of the strategy independently before adding new steps. Most of his students are able to independently use the strategy after two to four practice sessions. But, as needed, he provides them with opportunities to practice the writing strategy through a variety of instructional groupings (Click here for examples). Because Mr. Carter takes the time to allow his students to master each step, they are more likely to maintain the strategy as well as to generalize it to other situations.
Mr. Carter also supports his students by reminding them to use their self-regulation strategies. Self-reinforcement generally involves students using reinforcing statements to bolster their own performances, rather than relying on other types of reinforcements (e.g., points, tokens).
Listen to Karen Harris talk about self-reinforcement (time: 0:20).
Karen Harris, PhD
Division of Educational
Leadership and Innovation
Arizona State University
Click on the movie below to see a teacher support the class through guided practice before using the WWW, What=2, How=2 strategy independently. Notice that the teacher uses self-talk and self-monitoring during her demonstration. She models these two types of self-regulation strategies based on the needs of her students (time: 2:26).