Page 10: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2008). SRSD: Using learning strategies to enhance student learning. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/srs/
Brown, A. L., Campione, J. C., & Day. J. D. (1981). Learning to learn: On training students to learn from texts. Educational Researcher,10(4),14–21.
Harris, K., & Graham, S. (1996). Making the writing process work: Strategies for composition and self-regulation. Brookline, MA: Brookline Books.
Harris, K., Graham, S., & Mason, L. (2006). Improving the writing, knowledge, and motivation of struggling young writers: Effects of self-regulated strategy development with and without peer support. American Educational Research Journal, 43(2), 295–340.
Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.
Lane, K. L., Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Weisenebach, J., Brindle, M., & Morphy, P. (2008). The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing performance of second-grade students with behavioral and writing difficulties. The Journal of Special Education, 41(4), 234–253.
Mason, L., & Graham, S. (2008). Writing instruction for adolescents with learning disabilities: Programs of intervention research. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 23(2), 103–112.
Reid, R., & Lienemann, T. O. (2006). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities. New York: Guildford Press.
Sandmel, K. N., & Brindle, M. (2008, June). “I hope the tricks will help me because I am a terrible writer.” Self-regulated strategies development and writing strategies. Presentation delivered at the Special Education MegaConference, Nashville, TN.
Santangelo, T., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2008). Using self-regulated strategy development to support students who have “trubol giting thangs into werds.” Remedial and Special Education, 29, 78–89.
Baker, S. K., Chard, D. J., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Apichatabutra, C., & Doabler, C. (2009). Teaching writing to at-risk students: The quality of evidence for self-regulated strategy development. Exceptional Children, 75, 303–318.
As its title suggests, this study evaluates the quality of the evidence used to support the efficacy of SRSD programs. The result is a detailed and multi-faceted examination of the relevant research across a wide variety of characteristics.
De La Paz, S., Owen B., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2000). Riding Elvis’s motorcycle: Using self-regulated strategy development to PLAN and WRITE for a state writing exam. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(2), 101–109
In this article, the authors share theories behind SRSD and writing strategies to help prepare a group of students to take a state writing exam.
Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2009). Almost 30 years of writing research: Making sense of it all with The Wrath of Khan. Learning Disabilities Research, 24, 58–68.
This article features the findings of its authors’ examination of the various aspects of an ongoing research program in writing. Though the piece focuses on LD instruction, it includes detailed thoughts on the development of such writing programs over time and through the experience of those implementing them. An analogy to the evolution of the storyline of the Hollywood feature film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan is used to clarify and illustrate this development process.
Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Troia, G. A. (2000). Self-regulated strategy development revisited: Teaching writing strategies to struggling readers. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(4), 1–14.
In this article, the authors describe their efforts to create a self-regulation strategy for students who demonstrate pronounced reading difficulties. A detailed discussion of the strategy model and its efficacy among various students is included.
Lienemann, T. O., & Reid, R. (2006). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities: The self-regulated strategy development model. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(1), 3–11.
Geared toward the educators of teachers, this article takes an in-depth look at the Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) model for teaching students with learning disabilities. Throughout the article, the authors stress the effectiveness of the model and the need for classroom teachers to understand its purpose. The authors also address how to implement CSI in the classroom.
Lienemann, T. O., & Reid, R. (2008). Using self-regulated strategy development to improve expository writing with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Council for Exceptional Children, 74(4), 471–486.
In this article, the authors detail efforts at implementing a self-regulation strategy among students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an attempt to improve their writing skills. The results of said effort were found to be generally positive, with a number of observable improvements in the nature, length, and skill of the students’ expository writing assignments.
Mason, L., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2002). Every child has a story to tell: Self- regulation strategy development for story writing. Education and Treatment of Children, 25(4), 496–506.
Here the authors implement self-regulation strategy among a group of students engaged in a story writing assignment. The article details the steps taken during implementation and makes suggestions for further modifications.
Warger, E. (2002, Winter). Helping students with disabilities prepare well-writtencompositions. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from
This article offers a detailed example of how, after the implementation of writing strategies in one high school, 94 percent of the students passed the writing portion of their state’s competency exam.
Zito, J., Adkins, M., Gavins, M., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2007). Self-regulated strategy development: Relationship to the social-cognitive perspective and the development of self-regulation. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23, 77–95.
In this article, the authors examine in detail the relationship between Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) and a specific version of social cognitive theory. Included is a description of SRSD in the classroom.
Bender, W. (2002). Differentiating instruction for students with learning disabilities:Best teaching practices for general & special educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press; Council for Exceptional Children.
This book presents a wide variety of instructional strategies to help students with learning disabilities succeed in the classroom. Strategies for individualized, small-group, and whole-class instruction are presented.
Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Writing better: Teaching writing process and self-regulation to students with learning problems. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
This helpful and highly detailed work treats a number of strategies and offers specific steps and classroom examples for the implementation of structured writing assignments for students with disabilities.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds). (1998). Self-regulated learning: Fromteaching to self-reflective practice. New York: Guilford Press.
The authors offer a wealth of ideas across different domains, such as time and homework management, that can be used to supplement the SRSD model. Chapter 2 is devoted specifically to cases in which the SRSD model is demonstrated.
Cognitive Strategy Instruction, University of Nebraska-Lincoln cehs.unl.edu/csi/
This Website is devoted to different types of cognitive strategy instruction used in the classroom. The “Teaching Strategies” link contains a section on the SRSD model. Specifically, this section gives clear description of the six steps in the SRSD model.
Harris, K. (2008, December 11). Socrates died from an overdose of wedlock: Research onself-regulated strategy development in writing. [Video recording]. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, from http://uptv.univ-poitiers.fr/web/canal/61/theme/28/manif/202/video/1867/index.html
Karen Harris, Currey Ingram Professor of Special Education at Peabody College, leads this presentation at the Universite de Poitiers, France. In it, she discusses in detail the characteristics of both struggling and skilled writers and the process model for writing instruction as a means of improving the academic outcomes for both groups. A consideration of self-regulation strategy instruction begins at around the 23-minute mark.
Self-Regulated Strategy Development in Writing: Story and Opinion Essay Writing for Students with Disabilities or Severe Difficulties in the Early Elementary Grades. National Center on Accelerating Student Learning http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/CASL/srsd.html
The National Center on Accelerating Student Learning focuses on increasing learning for students with disabilities in the early grades. One of the main tools used to facilitate accelerated learning is the SRSD model. This Website specifically addresses the use of SRSD as a means to improve writing skills and presents evidence to argue the effectiveness of the method.
Visitors to this Website will find plentiful resources on SRSD, including the results of empirical research studies, professional development options, unit plans, and videos covering everything from effective writing strategy implementation to detailed overviews of SRSD itself. A section on writing resources boasts both below-standard narrative writing examples, as well as exemplar examples, graphic organizers, lesson plans, and much more,