Page 13: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center. (2009). Functional behavioral assessment: Identifying the reasons for problem behavior and developing a behavior plan. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/fba/
Barnhill, G. P. (2005). Functional behavior assessment in schools. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(3), 131–143.
Buck, G. H., Polloway, E. A., Kirkpatrick, M. A., & Patton, J. R., et al. (2000). Developing behavioral intervention plans: A sequential approach. Retrieved on September 16, 2009, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Developing_Behavioral_Intervention_Plans:__A_Sequential_Approach
Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behaviors: Preliminary results from a single-case experiment. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26(1), 15–25.
Dunlap, G., Kern-Dunlap, L., Clarke, S., & Robbins, F. R. (1991). Functional assessment, curricular revision, and severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 387–397.
Ervin, R. A., DuPaul, G. J., Kern, L., & Friman, P. C. (1998). Classroom-based functional and adjunctive assessments: Proactive approaches to intervention selection for adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(1), 65–78.
Hagan-Burke, S., Burke, M. D., & Sugai, G. (2007). Using structural analysis and academic -based intervention for a student at risk of EBD. Behavioral Disorders, 32(3), 175–191.
Jolivette, K., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, M. C. (2000). The link between functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavioral intervention plans (BIPs). Retrieved on September 16, 2009, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED438662.pdf
Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R., & Shepcaro, J. C. (2009). An examination of the evidence base for function-based interventions for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders attending middle and high schools. Exceptional Children, 75(3), 321–340.
Lane, K. L., Rogers, L. A., Parks, R. J., Weisenbach, J. L., Mau, A. C., Merwin, M. T., & Bergman, W. A. (2007). Function-based interventions for students who are nonresponsive to primary and secondary prevention efforts: Illustrations at the elementary and middle school levels. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15(3), 169–183.
Lane, K. L., Weisenbach, J. L., Little, M. A., Phillips, A., & Wehby, J. (2006). Illustrations of function-based interventions implemented by general education teachers: Building capacity at the school site. Education and Treatment of Children, 29(4), 549–571.
Lane, K. L., Weisenbach, J. L, Phillips. A., & Wehby, J. H. (2007). Designing, implementing, and evaluating function-based interventions using a systemic, feasible approach. Behavioral Disorders, 32(2), 122–139.
McConnell, M. E., Cox, C. J., Thomas, D. D., & Hilvitz, P. B. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: A systemic process for assessment and intervention in general and special education classrooms. Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
McIntosh, A. S. (2008, winter). A focus on behavioral assessment. Current Practice Alerts, 16.
Preciado, J. A., Horner, R. H., & Baker, S. K. (2009). Using a function-based approach to decrease problem behaviors and increase academic engagement for Latino English language learners. The Journal of Special Education, 42(4), 227–240.
Quinn, M. M., Gable, R. A., Rutherford, R. B., Nelson, C. M., & Howell, K. W. (1998). Addressing student problem behavior: An IEP team’s introduction to functional behavioral assessment and behavior intervention plans. Retrieved on September 16, 2009, from http://cecp.air.org/fba/problembehavior/main.htm
Quinn, M. M., Gable, R. A., Rutherford, R. B., Nelson, C. M., & Howell, K. W. (1998). Addressing student problem behavior (part II): Conducting a functional behavior assessment. Retrieved on September 16, 2009, from http://cecp.air.org/fba/problembehavior2/main2.htm
Rehabilitation Research & Training Center. (n.d.). PBS practice: Methods of functional behavioral assessment (FBA). Retrieved on September 16, 2009, from http://www.apbs.org/files/fbapractice.pdf
Ryan, A. L., Halsey, H. N., & Matthews. W. J. (2003). Using functional assessment to promote desirable student behavior in Schools. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 8–15.
Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C. J., Nelson, C. M., & Jolivette, K. (2003). Ensuring student success through team-based functional behavioral assessment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 16–21.
Shippen, M. E., Simpson, R. G., & Crites, S. A. (2003). A practical guide to functional behavioral assessment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 36–44.
Umbreit, J., Ferro, J., Liaupsin, C. J., & Lane, K. L. (2007). Functional behavior assessment and function-based intervention: An effective, practical approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Press.
Coy, J. N., & Kostewicz, D. E. (2018). Noncontingent reinforcement: Enriching the classroom environment to reduce problem behaviors. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 50(5), 301–309. doi/full/10.1177/0040059918765460
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) approaches classroom behavior management through a preemptive strategy of interpreting classroom environments to determine possible causes for challenging behaviors. The authors lay out a five-step implementation plan that emphasizes a careful, thoughtful approach to functional behavioral assessment using positive reinforcers.
Gage, N. A., & McDaniel, S. (2012). Creating smarter classrooms: Data-based decision making for effective classroom management. Beyond Behavior, 22(1), 48–55.
In this article, the authors stress the importance of adopting a data-based approach to accurately identify a behavior issue and to effectively address it with an appropriate response. A model framework and steps to achieving its implementation are included.
Hirsch, S. E., Bruhn, A. L., Lloyd, J. W., & Katsiyannis, A. (2017). FBAs and BIPs: Avoiding and addressing four common challenges related to fidelity. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(6), 369–379. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059917711696
Though functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) are commonly used in classrooms as an initial step in creating a behavior intervention plan (BIP) to address problem behaviors, federal guidance as to the specific features of an acceptable FBA remain vague. Here, the authors attempt to address this issue, suggesting resources (including the IRIS Module about FBAs), overviewing potential pitfalls, and detailing specific features that teachers can use to construct FBAs in their own classrooms.
Katsiyannis, A., Conroy, M., & Zhang, D. (2008). District-level administrators’ perspectives on the implementation of Functional Behavior Assessment in schools.Behavioral Disorders, 34(1), 14–26.
In this survey, the authors examine the effects of Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) among students in Florida and South Carolina. They find that FBA appears to be most useful in cases involving chronic problem behavior. Less effective was the use of FBA in more extreme cases having to do with the use of weapons or controlled substances. Included are tables detailing the most effective FBA procedures by behavior type, as well as a discussion of the overall implications of the study.
Lane, K . L., MacMillan, D. L., Bocian, K. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Treatment integrity: An essential—but often forgotten—component of school-based interventions. Preventing School Failure, 45, 1–7.
Here, Lane, Bocian, and Gresham explicate and discuss the idea of treatment integrity in school-based interventions. Included is a practical definition of treatment fidelity, as well as a method of assessment and a consideration of several factors that influence treatment fidelity in the classroom.
Lane, K. L., Umbreit, J., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. (1999). A review of functional assessment research with students with or at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 1, 101–111.
This article serves as an overview on the use of functional assessment for students with or at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Topics include an emphasis on gauging social validity and maintaining treatment fidelity.
Lewis, T. J., Hatton, H. L., Jorgenson, C., & Maynard, D. (2017). What beginning special educators need to know about conducting functional behavioral assessments. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 231–238.
Student behavior issues remain a significant challenge for classroom teachers, being both a major source of job-related stress and an impediment to instruction. The authors of this article overview a number of effective evidence-based practices designed to address inappropriate behavior, including the use of FBAs, positive behavior support plans, and more.
Lewis, T., & Wehby, J., eds. (2007). Focus on FBA [Special issue]. Behavioral Disorders, 32(3).
This entire special issue of Behavioral Disorders is dedicated to various issues related to functional behavioral analysis. Articles include a look at “The Future of Functional Behavior Assessment in School Settings” and “A School-based Examination of the Efficacy of Function-Based Intervention,” among others.
Umbreit, J. (1995). Functional assessment and intervention in a regular classroom setting for the disruptive behavior of a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 20, 267–278.
Assessment and intervention of an eight-year old with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who displayed disruptive behaviors during academic instruction involved three phases: (1) a brief functional analysis; (2) a curriculum-based assessment; and (3) an intervention derived from the assessments. Results showed an immediate reduction in disruptive behavior and an increase in appropriate behavior.
Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2008). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
This classic and highly engaging text includes evidence-based information on applied behavior analysis, behavior management, and functional behavioral assessment. The clear, concise writing style, coupled with humorous scenarios featuring the hard-working (if fictional) Professor Grundy, makes this a favorite with professors and students.
Crone, A. D., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: The Guilford Press.
This wide-ranging work is pitched at teachers, special educators, and any educational personnel engaged in working with students with behavior difficulties. Divided into three major sections, its chapters cover such essential topics as the changes in attitude required for effective implementation of behavior assessment in today’s schools, suggestions for how to build behavior support plans, and methods for developing and sustaining S-Teams, among many, many others.
The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice http://cecp.air.org/fba/
This federally funded center has developed a series of documents on FBA: Part 1–An IEP Team’s Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans; Part II-Conducting a Functional Behavioral Assessment; and Part III-Creating Positive Behavioral Intervention plans and Supports.
The OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports http://www.pbis.org/
Funded by the Office of Special Education Programs, this center provides schools with capacity-building information and technical assistance in order to help them to identify, adapt, and sustain effective school-wide disciplinary practices.