all module “Additional Resources” (english) 10262017

Module: Accessing the General Education Curriculum: Inclusion Considerations for Students with Disabilities

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Books 

McLaughlin, M. J. & Nolet, V. (2004). What every principal needs to know about special education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

This work serves as a reference for principals who seek a more thorough understanding of federal legislation related to special education. Included also is information pertaining to curriculum design, the proper use of assessment data, and much more.

Thompson, S. J., Quenemoen, R. F., Thurlow, M. L., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2001). Alternate assessments for students with disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. and Council for Exceptional Children. 

This book outlines a multi-step plan or the creation and administration of alternate assessments for students with disabilities. Compilations of sources of legal and education-related information are included.

 

Module: Accommodations to the Physical Environment: Setting Up a Classroom for Students with Visual Disabilities

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Online Resources

American Foundation for the Blind. (2005). Using a computer with a visual impairment: A beginner’s guide to computer accessibility. Retrieved from http://www.afb.org/info/living-with-vision-loss/using-technology/using-a-computer/123

This online resource from the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) offers tips and links about computer access for people who are blind or who have low vision. Visitors will find information on computer use for both beginners and more experienced users.

Arditi, A. (n.d.). Making text legible: Designing for people with partial sight. New York: Lighthouse International. Retrieved from http://li129-107.members.linode.com/accessibility/design/accessible-print-design/making-text-legible/#content

From Lighthouse International comes this helpful resource about the do’s and don’ts of effective legibility decisions in design for people with low vision. Through the use of colorful examples, the resource touches on subjects such as contrast, font families, leading, letter spacing, and much more.

Arditi, A. (n.d.). Effective color contrast: Designing for people with partial sight and color deficiencies. New York: Lighthouse International. Retrieved from http://www.cs.mtu.edu/~nilufer/classes/cs3611/interesting-stuff/designing-with-colors-1/color_contrast.htm

Also from Lighthouse International is this resource on designing with colors with people with low vision in mind. Examples keenly illustrate the effective use of hue, saturation, and lightness to achieve greater legibility.

Module: Accommodations: Instructional and Testing Supports for Students with Disabilities

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Articles

Stretch, L. S., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Extended time test accommodation: Direction for future research and practice. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7). Retrieved on March 1, 2012, from http://pareonline.net/pdf/v10n8.pdf

I
n this article, the authors look at the practical and legal implications for the implementation of extended-time testing accommodations. Detailed observations include “What Do Accommodations Do to Test Standardization?” and “What Do Accommodations Do to Test Validity?” among much else.

Books

Cahalan, C., & Cook, L. L. (2007). Large scale assessments and accommodations: What works? Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

This book-length work represents a wealth of information from some twenty-five authors on the ins-and-outs of large-scale assessments and the most effective way to implement them on at the district and statewide levels.

Kettler, R. J., & Elliott, S. N. (2010). Assessment accommodations for children with special needs. In International Encyclopedia of Education, pp. 530–536.

This short article presents a cogent and useful overview of accommodations for children with disabilities and other exceptionalities and stands as a worthwhile starting place for those who wish to learn more about accommodations and how and why they are implemented.

Online Resources

The Advocacy Institute. (October 9, 2007). Alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards [Webinar]. Retrieved on March 1, 2012, from http://www.advocacyinstitute.org/academy/Oct07PTIAAMAS/

This informative Webinar, hosted by the Advocacy Institute, features expert opinion and advice on alternate assessments from Kathleen Boundy, Co-Director of the Center for Law and Education, Connie Hawkins, Director of Technical Assistance Centers, Regions 2–3, Sue Rigney, U.S. Dept. of Education, and Martha Thurlow, Director of the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO).

Christensen, L. L., Lail, K. E., & Thurlow, M. L. (2007, April). Hints and tips for addressing accommodations issues for peer review. Retrieved on March 1, 2012, from http://www.cehd.umn.edu/NCEO/onlinepubs/PeerReviewAccomm.pdf

The necessity and implementation of statewide accommodations has necessitated also that schools, districts, and states respond to peer-review challenges of same. This handout from the National Center on Educational Outcomes is a resource to help schools to answer the most-likely questions to arise from that process.

Elliott, S. N., Kratochwill, T. R., Schulte, A. G. (1999). Assessment accommodations checklist. Monterey, CA: CTB/ McGraw-Hill. Retrieved on March 13, 2012, from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/agc/assess_accom_chklist.pdf

This handy and compact at-a-glance resource will be helpful to teachers as they navigate the myriad of possible accommodations that might accompany classroom assessments. Here users will find rubrics for “Schedule Accommodations,” “Setting Accommodations,” and “Test Format Accommodations,” among many others.

National Center on Educational Outcomes. (n.d.). Alternate assessments. Retrieved from https://nceo.info/Assessments/alternate_assessments

Visit this page of the NCEO’s online home for information on alternate assessments based on the Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS), an assessment designed for students with significant cognitive disabilities. Links to other assessments and resources can also be found.

Thompson, S. J., Morse, A. B., Sharpe, M., & Hall, S. (2005, August). Accommodations manual: How to select, administer, and evaluate use of accommodations for instruction and assessment of students with disabilities. Retrieved on March 1, 2012, from http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/2005/Accommodations_Manual_How_2005.pdf

This helpful and highly detailed offering seeks to create a meticulous five-step process whereby IEP teams can assess the effectiveness and general utility of testing accommodations for students with disabilities. Included are ruminations on the current realities of federal law regarding educational outcomes and testing, as well as notes on documenting students’ accommodations on their IEP and 504 plans.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (n.d.). Accommodations: Questions for parents to ask about school adaptations. Retrieved on October 12, 2016, from https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/node/118

To help the parents and guardians of students to untangle the often-confusing details of testing accommodations as they pertain to education outcomes and current federal law, OSEP offers this online resource. On hand here are questions related to the necessity, nature, and content of instructional accommodations that parents can use to gain a better and clearer understanding of what they are and why they are used.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (n.d.). Tool kit on teaching and assessing students with disabilities. Retrieved on October 12, 2016, from https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/federal-resources-stakeholders/tool-kits/tool-kit-teaching-and-assessing-students-disabilities

This impressive collection of resources and links attempts to answer the most pressing questions about teaching and assessing students with disabilities and other exceptionalities as a means of helping parents to navigate the sometimes confusing practice of testing accommodations and the federal law pertaining to them.

Module: Accountability: High-Stakes Testing for Students with Disabilities

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Books

McLaughlin, M. J., & Nolet, V. (2004). What every principal needs to know about special education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

This work serves as a reference for principals who seek a more thorough understanding of federal legislation related to special education. Included also is information pertaining to curriculum design, the proper use of assessment data, and much more.

Thompson, S. J., Quenemoen, R. F., Thurlow, M. L., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2001). Alternate assessments for students with disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin and the Council for Exceptional Children.

This book outlines a multi-step plan or the creation and administration of alternate assessments for students with disabilities. Compilations of sources of legal and education-related information are included.

Module: Addressing Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors (Part 1): Understanding the Acting-Out Cycle

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Articles

Lane, K. L., & Wehby, J. (2002). Addressing antisocial behavior in the schools: A call for action. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 6, 4–9.

Mace, F. C., & Belfiore, P. (1990). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of escape motivated stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 507–514.

Mace, F. C., Hock, M. L., Lalli, J. S., West, B. J., Belfiore, P., Pinter, E., & Brown, D. K. (1988). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of noncompliance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 123–141.

Book Chapters

Colvin, G. (2002). Designing classroom organization and structure. In K. L. Lane, F. M. Gresham, & T. E. O’Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (pp. 159–174). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Lane, K. L. (in press). Academic instruction and tutoring interventions for students with emotional/behavioral disorders 1990 to Present. In R. B. Rutherford, M. M. Quinn, and. S. R. Mathur (Eds.). Handbook of research in behavior disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Walker, H. M., & Severson, H. (2002). Developmental prevention of at-risk outcomes for vulnerable antisocial children and youth. In K. L. Lane, F. M. Gresham, & T. E. O’Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (pp. 177–194). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Books

Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (1999). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill/ Prentice Hall.

Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., & Smith, C. E. (1994). Communication-based intervention for problem behavior. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Elliott, S., & Gresham, F. M. (1991). Social skills intervention guide. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance.

Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., & O’Shaughnessy, T. E. (2004). Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Lane, K. L., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E. (2004). School-based interventions: The tools you need to succeed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Maag, J. W. (2004). Behavior management: From theoretical implications to practical applications (2nd ed.), pp. 151–197. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning.

Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence-based practices. (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning.

Module: Addressing Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors (Part 2): Behavioral Interventions

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Articles

Belfiore, P. J., Lee, D. L., Vargas, A. U., & Skinner, C. H. (1997). Effects of high-preference single-digit mathematics problem completion on multiple-digit mathematics problem performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, pp. 327–330.

Cole, C. L., Davenport, T. A., Bambara, L. M., & Ager, C. L. (1997). Effects of choice and task preference on the work performance of students with behavior problems. Behavioral Disorders, 22, pp. 65–74.

Cosden, M., Gannon, C., & Haring, T. G. (1995). Teacher-control versus student- control over choice of task and reinforcement for students with severe behavior problems. Journal of Behavioral Education, 5, pp. 11–27.

Davis, C. A., Brady, M. P., Williams, R. E., & Hamilton, R. (1992). Effects of high-probability requests on the acquisition and generalization of responses to requests in young children with behavior disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 905–916.

Davis, C. A., & Reichle, J. (1996). Variant and invariant high-probability requests: Increasing appropriate behaviors in children with emotional-behavioral disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 471–482.

Davis, C. A., Reichle, J. E., & Southard, K. L. (2000). High-probability requests and a preferred item as a distractor: Increasing successful transitions in children with behavior problems. Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 423–440.

Dunlap, G., dePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 505–518.

Dyer, K., Dunlap, G., & Winterling, V. (1990). Effects of choice making on the serious problem behaviors of students with severe handicaps. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 515–524.

Guess, D., Benson, H. S., & Siegel-Causey, E. (1985). Concepts and issues related to choice-making and autonomy among persons with severe disabilities. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10, 79–86.

Jolivette, K., Wehby, J. H., Canale, J., & Massey, N. G. (2001). Effects of choice making opportunities on the behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 26, 131–145.

Kern, L., Vorddran, C. M., Hilt, A., Ringdahl, J. E., Adelman, B. E., & Dunlap, G. (1998). Choice as an intervention to improve behavior: A review of the literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8, 151–169.

Killu, K. (1999). High-probability request research: Moving beyond compliance. Education and Treatment of Children, 22, 470–494.

Lane, K. L., Pierson, M., & Givner, C. C. (2004). Secondary teachers’ views on social competence: Skills essential for success. Journal of Special Education. 38(3), 174–186.

Lane, K. L., & Wehby, J. (2002). Addressing antisocial behavior in the schools: A call for action. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 6, 4–9.

Mace, F. C., & Belfiore, P. (1990). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of escape- motivated stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 507–514.

Mace, F. C., Hock, M. L., Lalli, J. S., West, B. J., Belfiore, P., Pinter, E., & Brown, D. K. (1988). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of noncompliance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 123–141.

Moes, D. R. (1998). Integrating choice-making opportunities within teacher-assigned academic tasks to facilitate the performance of children with autism. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10, 183–193.

Ogier, R. E., & Hornby, G. (1996). Effects of differential reinforcement on the behavior and self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal of Behavioral Education, 6, 501–510.

Ramasamy, R., Taylor, R. L., & Ziegler, E. W. (1996). Eliminating inappropriate classroom behavior using a DRO schedule: A preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 78, 753–754.

Repp, A. C., & Deitz, S. M. (1974). Reducing aggressive and self-injurious behavior of institutionalized retarded children through reinforcement of other behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 313–325.

Repp, A. C., Deitz, S. M., & Speir, N. C. (1974). Reducing stereotypic responding of retarded persons by the differential reinforcement of other behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 79, 279–284.

Repp, A. C., Barton, L. E., & Brulle, A. R. (1983). A comparison of two procedures for programming the differential reinforcement of other behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 435–445.

Repp, A. C., Felce, D., Barton, L. E. (1991). The effects of initial interval size on the efficacy of DRO schedules of reinforcement. Exceptional Children, 57, 417–425.

Wehby, J. H., & Hollahan, M. S. (2000). Effects of high-probability requests on the latency to initiate academic tasks. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 259–262.

Wehby, J., Symonds, F., Canale, J., & Go, F. (1998). Teaching practices in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Discrepancies between recommendations and observations. Behavior Disorders, 24, 51–56.

Book Chapters

Colvin, G. (2002). Designing classroom organization and structure. In K.L. Lane, F. M. Gresham, & T. E. O’Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (pp. 159–174). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Gresham, F.M. (2002). Social skills assessment and instruction for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. In K. L. Lane, F. M. Gresham, and T. E. O’Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (pp. 242–258). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Lane, K. L. (2004). Academic instruction and tutoring interventions for students with emotional/ behavioral disorders 1990 to Present. In R. B. Rutherford, M. M. Quinn, and. S. R. Mathur (Eds.), Handbook of research in behavior disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Walker, H. M., & Severson, H. (2002). Developmental prevention of at-risk outcomes for vulnerable antisocial children and youth. In K. L. Lane, F. M. Gresham, & T. E. O’Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (pp. 177–194). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Books

Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (1999). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, Nk Merrill/ Prentice Hall.

Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., & Smith, C. E. (1994). Communication-based intervention for problem behavior. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Colvin, G. (1993). Managing acting-out behavior. Eugene, OR: Behavior Associates.

Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., & O’Shaughnessy, T. E. (2004.), Interventions forchildren with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Boston:Allyn & Bacon.

Lane, K. L., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E. (2004). School-based interventions: Thetools you need to succeed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Maag, J. W. (2004). Behavior management: From theoretical implications to practicalapplications (2nd ed.), pp. 151–197. USA: Wadsworth.

Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change.Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school:Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/ Cole.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school with infotrac: Evidence-based practices (with InfoTrac). USA: Wadsworth.

Module: Assistive Technology: An Overview

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Articles and Books

Council for Exceptional Children. (2005). Universal design for learning: A guide for teachers and education professionals. Arlington, VA: Pearson Education, Inc.

This useful (and brief) guide to UDL serves as a handy introduction to the concept and application of universal design for learning (UDL). Chapters cover “Universal Design for Learning in Today’s Diverse Schools,” “Assistive Technology and Universal Design for Learning in Content Areas,” and “Collaborative Strategies for Universal Design for Learning Success.” Topics are illustrated in a fictional scenario set in Briarwood, “a large suburban school district with a diverse student population.”

Hasselbring, T. S., & Bausch, M. E. (2006, January). Assistive technologies for reading. Educational Leadership, 63(4). Retrieved on July 21, 2010, from http://www.wce.wwu.edu/Depts/SPED/Forms/Kens%20Readings/reading/Readings/Tech-Reading-Hasselbring.pdf

This article includes a definition of assistive technology as well as an overview of a pair of available AT software remedies for students who struggle with reading.

Parette, H. P., Peterson-Karlan, G. R., Wojcik, B. W., & Bardi, N. (2007). Monitor that progress! Interpreting data trends for assistive technology decision making. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40(1), 22–29. Retrieved on July 22, 2010, from http://sssd.ccsd.net/documents/MonitorThatProgress.pdf

This article offers guidance for schools uncertain who to proceed with data collection and assessment to determine the effectiveness of AT in the classroom. On hand are thoughts on “The Importance of Data in AT Consideration” and “A Classroom Approach for Evidence-Based Practice.” Cases are illustrated with hypothetical scenarios.

Reed, P., Kaplan, M., & Bowser, G. (2009). The assistive technology trainer’s handbook. Roseburg, OR: The NATE Network.

This resource is loaded with information and suggested guidelines for AT trainers, with chapters covering things to do and consider “Before You Start” (“Get People Talking”) through the “Day of the Training” (“Encourage Questions”) itself. A useful Appendices and “List of Reflections” rounds out the effort.

Commercial Products

Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). Assistive technology consideration quick wheel. Commercial product available from cuny.edu/core9/phalsall/texts/taote-v3.html

This product by the Council for Exceptional Children “offers federal definitions of AT devices and services as well as a list of the AT tools to consider in content areas and other resources including books, journals, newsletters and Internet sites.”

Friedlander, B. S. (2010). Assistive technology: What every educator needs to know. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Inc.

This resource, available for purchase from National Professional Resources, Inc., is a pair of laminated plates that served as an at-a-glance guide to AT implementation. Packed with information, the guide contains a definition of assistive technology and universal design for learning (UDL), as well as lists of reading, writing, and organizational tools.

Technology and Media Division (TAM). (n.d.). TAM technology fan: Supports for young children. Commercial product available from
http://www.exinn.net/tam-fan3.html

The TAM Technology Fan is just that: information about AT use for young children printed on narrow paper cards that can be fanned open to form a convenient and portable at-a-glance tool. Of its product, TAM says “Developed by national experts at the Let’s Play! Project—Sue Mistrett, Amy Ruffino, Shelly Lane, Linda Robinson, Penny Reed, and Suzanne Milbourne—the TAM Fan is a practical tool for families, teachers, service providers, and other caregivers to use when considering technology items for young children.”

AbleData. (n.d.). “Products.” Retrieved on July 22, 2010, from http://www.abledata.com/abledata.cfm?pageid=19327

AbleData is a center that assesses and compiles information about assistive technology products to help consumers make informed decisions during the consideration and acquisition process. On hand here are products (which AbleData does not sell or distribute) categorized by “Aids for Daily Living,” “Deaf and Hard of Hearing,” “Education,” and “Seating,” among many, many others.

Atomic Learning. (2010). Integrate assistive technology in general education: A quick reference guide. Retrieved on July 21, 2010, from
static.atomiclearning.com/eastwood/files/assistivetech_ebook.pdf

This stripped-down version of the how-tos of AT implementation will prove useful to those acclimating themselves to what the process entails. Included are notes on creating a common vision and developing AT skills.

Bakken, T., & Kunz, M. (2009). AT for reading, writing and math. PACER Center Assistive Technology Training Series Webinar presented on June 2, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2010, from http://www.pacer.org/webinars/ATforRWM/Presentation%20Handout.pdf

This entry in the PACER Center’s Assistive Technology Training Webinar Series covered topics such as “Where to Find E-Book,” “Low Tech Writing,” and “Math Creation Software,” among many others. A valuable resource for those beginning the search for various kinds of assistive technology devices to suit a variety of student needs.

Bowser, G., & Reed, P. (2007). Hey! Can I try that: A student handbook for choosing and using assistive technology. Retrieved on March 20, 2012, from http://www.wati.org/content/supports/free/pdf/HeyCanITryThat08.pdf

This helpful and conversant resource will prove quite useful to students who have questions about which pieces of assistive technology are best for them and how to successfully go about using them. Complete with helpful examples, Hey! Can I Try That? includes also questions for students to ask of themselves, steps to take to determine what their instructional issue is and how to go about addressing it, and a number of useful questionnaires to help fill out “Your Story.”

Edyburn, D. L. (2009, December 29). Top 2009 articles on special education technology that you must read. Retrieved on July 22, 2010, from https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/edyburn/www/top2009.html

Dr. Dave Edyburn has complied a useful bibliography of what are, in his estimation, the must-reads of 2009 on the topic of assistive technology in special education.

Hartsell, K. (n.d.). Considering assistive technology for students with disabilities. Georgia Project for Assistive Technology (GPAT).

This online resource (unfortunately no longer available) includes information about quality indicators for AT consideration, as well as a handy checklist of possible AT outcomes.

Minnesota Department of Children, Families & Learning. (2003). Minnesota assistive technology manual. Division of Special Education. Retrieved on July 21, 2010, from http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/Learning_Support/Special_Education/Evaluation_
Program_Planning_Supports/Assistive_Technology/AT_Resources/index.html
 

This comprehensive manual can serve as both an introduction to assistive technology for new comers and as a supplement for those already versed in its use. On hand is a list of recommended competencies, as well as guidelines for the consideration of AT and an assistive technology glossary.

Texas Assistive Technology Network. (2006). The Texas 4-step model: Considering assistive technology in the IEP process. Presentation slides. Retrieved on July 21, 2010, from http://www.texasat.net/default.aspx?name=trainmod.consideration

These presentation slides developed by the Texas Assistive Technology Network provides a step-by-step guide to determining whether a student requires the use of assistive technology. Included is an overview of the legal development of assistive technology requirements in the classroom and a continuum of low- to high-tech assistive technology.

University of Washington. (n.d.). Do-It: Disabilities, opportunities, internetworking, and technology Website. Retrieved from http://www.washington.edu/doit/

This Website is a clearinghouse of all things related to the use of technology among individuals with disabilities. Visitors will find a list of relative programs, as well as extensive links to resources on topics such as “Accessible Technology” and “Universal Design for Learning.”

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). Family information guide to assistive technology. Retrieved on July 22, 2010, from http://www.osepideasthatwork.org/parentkit/37_6_addinfo.asp

This comprehensive toolkit on assistive technology considers a multitude of subjects and includes a useful list of “National Sources of AT Information.” A great place to start for those looking to pursue more information about assistive technology in the classroom and at home.

Module: Autism Spectrum Disorder (Part 1): An Overview for Educators

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Articles

Childress, D. C., Conroy, M. A., & Hill, C. F. (2012, January). Supporting young children with autism spectrum disorders and their families. Infant & Toddler Connection of Virginia Guidance Document. Retrieved on August 18, 2015, from https://infantva.org/documents/pr-partc-asd-guidance.pdf

This document created specifically for early intervention specialists includes information on the signs and symptoms of ASD, as well as overviews of assessment and service planning, diagnostic tools, and evidence-based practices for young children with ASD.

Lord, C., Risi, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., Pickles, A., & Rutter, M. (2000). The autistic diagnostic observation schedule–generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.

In this article, the authors overview a “semistructured, standardized assessment of social interaction, communication, play, and imaginative use of materials for individuals suspected of having autism spectrum disorders.” Information includes the history and development of the diagnostic tool, methods of diagnosis, and the results of numerous reliability studies, among much else.

Miranda, A., Tarraga, R., Fernandez, M. I., Colomer, C., & Pastor, G. (2015). Parenting stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Exceptional Children, 82(1), 81–95.

In this study, the authors find that the parents of children with autism spectrum disorder or ADHD tend to experience more stress than do other parents. Included here is an overview of the study and its methods, as well as a discussion and some notes on the practical implications of the research and its findings.

Online Resources

American Academy of Pediatrics: Autism
https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/Committees-Councils-Sections/Council-on-Children-with-Disabilities/Pages/Autism.aspx

The Website of the American Academy of Pediatrics houses a wealth of information about autism spectrum disorders. Visitors here will find links to information on the latest AAP policies regarding autism, resources for professionals and families, training Webinars, and much, much more.

ASD Toddler Initiative Project
http://asdtoddler.fpg.unc.edu

This project, housed at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, promotes the use of evidence-based practices for infants and toddlers (ages 0 to 3) and their families. Their Website hosts modules on EBPs and on the early identification of ASD.

Autism Speaks
https://www.autismspeaks.org/

The online home of Autism Speaks is filled with information and resources covering a wide variety of topics having to do with autism. An extensive research section—as well as information for families and educators, videos, and the latest news about science and treatment—can all be accessed here.

Center for Parent Information and Resources (CPIR)
http://www.parentcenterhub.org

Part of the Parent Center network funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs, CPIR serves as a central resource for parents, providing information and resources to improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. In addition to materials on a variety of topics, including ASD, parents can connect with their State Parent Training and Information Centers (PTIs) and Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRCs).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html

Visitors to this section of the CDC’s Website will find links to information and resources about treatments, research and tracking, data and statistics, a wide variety of articles, and more.

The National Professional Development Center of Autism Spectrum Disorder
https://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/

This project of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, promotes the use of evidence-based practices for children and students with autism spectrum disorders. Those visiting the project’s Website will find an extensive section on EBPs, as well as an overview of the NDPC model and resources for further investigation and study.

Project SEARCH
https://www.projectsearch.us/

Originally created at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Project SEARCH has grown into an international organization dedicated to helping people with autism spectrum disorders to secure employment. The center’s Website includes a detailed overview of the program, tales of past successes, and information for those who wish to get involved, among much more.

Sibling Support Project
http://www.siblingsupport.org

This project provides information and resources to the brothers and sisters of those with disabilities, including autism spectrum disorders. The project’s new Website includes information on upcoming workshops, tools and training, and ways to connect with other siblings taking part in the program.

TEACCH Autism Program
https://teacch.com/

Headquartered at the University of North Carolina, the TEACCH Autism Program “creates and cultivates the development of exemplary community-based services, training programs, and research to enhance the quality of life for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and for their families across the lifespan.” The program’s Website provides information on clinical services, training, and research, among more.

Wrong Planet
https://wrongplanet.net/

This “Web community designed for individuals (and parents/professionals of those) with Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, ADHD, PDDs, and other neurological differences” provides links to autism-related news and research, information about therapy and other services, and articles on a range of topics including tips on how to secure employment and what to do if your wallet is stolen or turns up missing.

Module: Autism Spectrum Disorder (Part 2): Evidence-Based Practices

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Articles

Gardiner, K. F., Carter, E. W., Gustafson, J. R., Hochman, J. M., Harvey, M. N., Mullins, T. S., & Fan, H. (2014). Effects of peer networks on the social interactions of high school students with autism spectrum disorders. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 39(2), 100–118.

In this article, the authors investigate the usefulness of social networks are means through which to increase the social interactions of young people with autism. Findings indicate that such networks do, in fact, lead to more and stronger social bonds for those students. A discussion regarding further research and possible applications is included.

Gauvreau, A. N., & Schwartz, I. S. (2013). Using visual supports to promote appropriate behavior in young children with autism and related disabilities. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 15, 29–44.

Here the authors overview the use of various visual resources to manage the behavior of children with autism. Information about applied behavior analysis (ABA) is of particular interest in the context of this module.

Hendricks, D. R., & Wehman, P. (2009). Transition from school to adulthood for youth with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 24(2), 77–88.

Students with autism spectrum disorder face a number of unique challenges and obstacles during the transition from high school to either higher education or to life and employment after school. In this article, the authors examine some of these challenges, as well as some of the ways young people can overcome them. A focus on related services includes information on outside support services related to work, home life, and further education.

King, S. A., Lemons, C. J., & Davidson, K. A. (2016). Math interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder: A best-evidence synthesis. Exceptional Children, 82(4), 443–462.

This article sets out to evaluate existing studies about effective evidence-based practices for math instructors to help improve the outcomes for students with ASD. Included here is a detailed explanation of the research’s methodology as well as its limitations, notes on the relative scarcity of reliable studies relevant to this population of students, and a call for more research and analysis.

Koegel, L. K., Park, M. N., & Koegel, R. L. (2014). Using self-management to improve the reciprocal social conversation of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1055–1063.

Here the authors overview an experimental method to help young people with autism spectrum disorder to alleviate some of the challenges that come along with conversing and interacting socially with their average developing peers. The self-management method, they find, leads to an increase in focus, responsiveness, and naturalness.

Kucharczyk, S., Reutebuch, C. K., Carter, E. W., Hedges, S., El Zein, F., Fan, H., & Gustafson, J. R. (2015). Addressing the needs of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: Considerations and complexities for high school interventions. Exceptional Children, 81(3), 329–349.

The authors of this article assembled twenty-eight focus groups in four states to help determine the more efficient and effective methods for using evidence-based practices to improve the classroom outcomes for high school students. Resulting data and possible answers to many of the questions posed by the research are explored in-depth.

Lee, G. K., & Carter, E. W. (2012). Preparing transition-age students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders for meaningful work. Psychology in the Schools, 49(10), 988–1000.

One of the challenges facing young people with autism spectrum disorder is finding gainful employment following the transition from high school. Here the authors examine seven elements to help them do just that, including the efficient use of related services and community supports, interagency involvement, and job-related skills instruction.

Mason, R. A., Davis, H. S., Boles, M. B., & Goodwyn, F. (2013). Efficacy of point-of-view video modeling: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 34(6), 333–345.

This research article looks at the possible use of first-person POV videos as tools by which to model the behavior of young people with autism spectrum disorder. The results of that study—which indicated a positive effect on the targeted behaviors—are discussed in-depth, as are considerations for further research and possible applications of the method.

MacDonald, R., Parry-Cruwys, D., Dupere, S., & Ahearn, W. (2014). Assessing progress and outcomes of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(12), 3632–3644. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891422214003898

The authors of this essay compared the social, behavioral, and academic development of young children with autism spectrum disorder alongside their typically developing peers. Their conclusions indicate that young children with ASD do indeed benefit in a variety of ways through the application of intensive early interventions. Notes on implications and future research are included.

Schwartz, I., Thomas, C. J., McBride, B., & Sandall, S. (2013). A school-based preschool program for children with ASD: A quasi-experimental assessment of child change in Project DATA. School Mental Health, 5, 221–232.

Here the authors investigate the usefulness of Project DATA (Developmentally Appropriate Treatment for Autism), a treatment method for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Their findings indicate that Project DATA does indeed improve the development of such children along a wide variety of outcomes, particularly those most closely associated with the challenges presented by ASD.

Strain, P. S., Schwartz, I. S., Barton, E. E. (2011). Providing interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorders: What we still need to accomplish. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 321–332.

This distillation of a quarter-century of research on young people with autism spectrum disorder overviews a number of major themes and lessons to have emerged as a result, including the growing importance of effective evidence-based practices as a means for improving outcomes. Notes on what the next 25 years might yield are included.

Yeung, A. S., & Yeung, A. S. (2015). Self-management for autism spectrum disorders: A review. North American Journal of Medicine and Science, 8(3), 123–128.

Here six studies related to self-management as a treatment for young people with autism spectrum disorder are overviewed and discussed. Necessary adaptations to the self-management method going forward are likewise examined.

Online Resources

Autism Focused Intervention Resources and Modules (AFIRM)
https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/afirm-modules

Visit the AFIRM Website to find numerous resources and Modules on topics that include functional behavioral assessment, peer-mediated instruction, self-management strategies, and much more. Also of note is a section with information about EBP selection.

Autism Speaks
https://www.autismspeaks.org/

The online home of Autism Speaks is filled with information and resources covering a wide variety of topics having to do with autism. An extensive research section—as well as information for families and educators, videos, and the latest news about science and treatment—can all be accessed here.

The Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (CSESA)
http://csesa.fpg.unc.edu/

Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, CSESA focuses on “developing, adapting, and studying a comprehensive school-based and community-based education program for high school students on the autism spectrum.” Visitors here will find information and resources on evidence-based practices, case studies, a secondary school success checklist, and much more.

Chazin, K. T., & Ledford, J. R. (2016). An overview of evidence-based instructional practices (EBIPs). In Evidence-based instructional practices for young children with autism and other disabilities. Retrieved from http://vkc.mc.vanderbilt.edu/ebip/

This online resource includes a brief overview of evidence-based practices and programs and includes resources and links for those searching for more information, including peer-reviewed articles, ASD-related Websites, and much more.

Collet-Klingenberg, L. (2008). PECS: Steps for implementation. Madison, WI: The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, the Waisman Center, the University of Wisconsin. Retrieved from https://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/PECS_Checklist.pdf

This helpful resource will be welcomed by anyone implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). To further simplify, the intervention is broken down into six sequential phases. Information and a link to a module with more details about PCS are also here.

National Autism Center. (n.d.). National Autism Center free digital publications. Retrieved from http://www.nationalautismcenter.org/resources/

A May Institute Center for the Promotion of Evidence-based Practice, the National Autism Center offers a host of resources and information related to autism spectrum disorder. Visitors here will find resources for families, educators, and employers and much more, including information about services for military families, research presentations, and international consultation.

The National Professional Development Center of Autism Spectrum Disorder
https://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/

This project of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, promotes the use of evidence-based practices for children and students with autism spectrum disorders. Those visiting the project’s Website will find an extensive section on EBPs, as well as an overview of the NDPC model and resources for further investigation and study.

Stone, W. (2003). Visual supports for home and school. Retrieved from http://uwreadilab.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/VISUAL-SUPPORTS-Booklet-for-Home-and-School.pdf

This online booklet features information and tips about the use of visual supports as schedules or calendars, to support everyday routines, to facilitate communication, and much more. Ample illustrations offer models of each variety of visual support.

Module: Bookshare: Providing Accessible Materials for Students with Print Disabilities

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Article

The DAISY Consortium. (2009). History of the DAISY Consortium. Retrieved on November 9, 2009, from http://www.daisy.org/history


The DAISY Consortium seeks to create a world of accessible texts for those whose exceptionalities might otherwise prove a barrier. This short article describes the history of the enterprise, detailing its transformation from rather humble beginnings to status of global leader in digital text creation and conversion.

Booklet

Pacer Center, republished by the Center on Technology and Disability. (2011). Accessible instructional materials (AIM): Basics for families. https://www.ctdinstitute.org/sites/default/files/file_attachments/Accessible%20Instructional%20Materials%20(AIM)%20Basics%20For%20Families%20English.pdf

What are accessible instructional materials (AIM), and how can families and educators decide whether they are appropriate for students? The information in this resource—developed with families in mind particularly—will help to answer those questions, covering such topics as the types of specialized formats available, how to know which format a given child should use, and how accessible materials are obtained through the appropriate state and local education agencies.

Websites

Don Johnston http://www.donjohnston.com/

This website features the vision and work of the language and reading educator Don Johnston. On hand here is a wealth of resources, including a library of resources for reading instruction and research on the digital text revolution. Don Johnston partners with Bookshare to provide free technology access for online educational materials to students with print disabilities.

Humanware http://www.humanware.com/en-usa/home

Visit the Humanware website to find the latest in commercial products related to accessibility and accommodation for those with blindness or low vision. Text readers are well represented.

Learning Ally learningally.org

Formerly known as Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic (RFB&D), Learning Ally is the world’s largest provider of audio textbooks and literature. This organization is vested in making sure everyone can enjoy and comprehend the printed word by helping them overcome obstacles to reading printed materials.

Module: Classroom Assessment (Part 1): An Introduction to Monitoring Academic Achievement in the Classroom

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Articles and books

Davis, L. B., Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Whinnery, K. (1995). “Will CBM help me learn?”: Students’ perceptions of the benefits of curriculum-based measurement. Education and Treatment of Children, 18(1), 19–32.

Fewster, S., & MacMillan, P. D. (2002). School-based evidence for the validity of curriculum-based measurement of reading and writing. Remedial Special Education, 23(3), 149–156.

Foegen, A., Espin, C. A., & Allinder, R. M. (2001). Translating research into practice: Preservice teachers’ beliefs about curriculum-based measurement. The Journal of Special Education, 34(4), 226–236.

Fuchs, L. S., Butterworth, J. R., & Fuchs, D. (1989). Effects of ongoing curriculum-based measurement on student awareness of goals and progress. Education and Treatment of Children, 12, 63–72.

Fuchs, L. S., & Deno, L. S. (1991). Paradigmatic distinction between instructionally relevant measurement models. Exceptional Children, 57, 488–500.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2003). Curriculum-based measurement: A best practice guide. National Association of School Psychologists Communique, 32, 1–4.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53, 199–208.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1991). Curriculum-based measurements: Current applications and future directions. Preventing School Failure, 35(3), 6–11.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1993). Effect of systematic observation and feedback on teachers’ implementation of curriculum-based measurement. Teacher Education and Special Education, 16, 178–187.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1993). Technological advances linking the assessment of students’ academic proficiency to instructional planning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 12, 49–62.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Hasselbring, T. S. (1987). Using computers with curriculum-based monitoring: Effects on teacher efficiency and satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 8, 14–27.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (1991). Effects of curriculum-based measurement and consultation on teacher planning and student achievement in mathematics operations. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 617–641.

Fuchs, L. S., Hamlett, C. L., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Monitoring basic skills progress (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Fuchs, L. S., Hamlett, C. L., & Fuchs, D. (1988). Conducting curriculum-based collection: Effects on efficiency and measurement with computerized data teacher satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 9, 73–85.

Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kameenui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257–288.

Hosp, M. K., & Hosp, J. L. (2003). Curriculum-based measurement for reading, spelling, and math: How to do it and why. Preventing School Failure, 48(1), 10–17.

Marston, D., Diment, K., Allen, D., & Allen, L. (1992). Monitoring pupil progress in reading. Preventing School Failure, 36(2), 21–25.

Sibley, D., Biwer, D., & Hesch, A. (2001). Establishing curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency performance standards to predict success on local and state tests of reading achievement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists (Washington, D.C., April 17–21, 2001). Retrieved from http://www.edrs.com, ERIC Document No ED 453 527. July 7, 2004.

Wesson, C. L. (1991). Curriculum-based measurement and two models of follow-up consultation. Exceptional Children, 57, 246–257.

Wesson, C. L., King, R., & Deno, S. L. (1984). Direct and frequent measurement: If it’s so good for us, why don’t we use it? Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 45–48.

Yell, M. L., Deno, S. L., & Marston, D. B. (1992). Barriers to implementing curriculum-based measurement. Diagnostique, 18, 99–114.

Online resources

AIMSweb http://www.aimsweb.com

This computer software graphs and analyzes student scores.

CBM Warehouse http://www.interventioncentral.org/cbm_warehouse

This site offers several free downloads to assist teachers with administering probes and graphing students’ data using computers.

DIBELS http://dibels.uoregon.edu

The DIBELS Data System allows teachers to enter students’ test scores and enables them to generate automated reports. The cost for this service is $1 per student, per year.

Edcheckup http://www.edcheckup.com

This online assessment system administers and scores tests. Reports and graphs are automatically generated that follow class and student progress. Guidelines for setting annual goals and evaluating student progress are provided.

McGraw-Hill http://www.mhdigitallearning.com

Yearly ProgressPro (TM) assesses students weekly via computer, graphs their scores, and makes instructional recommendations based on those scores.

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring http://www.studentprogress.org/

The National Center on Student Progress Monitoring is a national technical assistance and dissemination center funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). It offers assistance to states and districts who are interested in implementing progress monitoring grades K–5.

PALS: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/

Visit the official PALS Website for resources and commercial products related to peer-assisted learning strategies. Visitors will find Modules about PALS reading and math, as well as training resources, research into the effectiveness of the strategies, products for teachers, and more.

Module: Classroom Assessment (Part 2): Evaluating Reading Progress

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Online Resources

AIMSweb http://www.aimsweb.com or http://www.edformation.com

This computer software graphs and analyzes student scores.

CBM Warehouse http://www.interventioncentral.org/cbm_warehouse

This site offers several free downloads to assist teachers with administering probes and graphing students’ data using computers.

DIBELS http://dibels.uoregon.edu

The DIBELS Data System allows teachers to enter students’ test scores and generates automated reports. The cost for this service is $1 per student, per year.

Edcheckup http://www.edcheckup.com

This online assessment system administers and scores tests. Reports and graphs that follow class and student progress are automatically generated. Guidelines for setting annual goals and evaluating student progress are provided.

McGraw-Hill http://www.mhdigitallearning.com

Yearly ProgressPro (TM) assesses students weekly via computer and graphs their scores then makes instructional recommendations based on their scores.

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring http://www.studentprogress.org/

The National Center on Student Progress Monitoring is a national technical assistance and dissemination center funded by the Office of Special Education programs (OSEP). It assists states and districts interested in implementing progress monitoring in grades K–5.

PALS: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/

Visit the official PALS Website for resources and commercial products related to peer-assisted learning strategies. Visitors will find Modules about PALS reading and math, as well as training resources, research into the effectiveness of the strategies, products for teachers, and more.

Module: Classroom Diversity: An Introduction to Student Differences

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Articles

Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts.
American Psychological Association, 100(2), 235–251. Does low-SES affect the reading development of young children?

In this article, the authors attempt to answer that question through use of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort of 1998–1999. Their findings suggest a complex relationship between poverty, socioeconomic status, and reading achievement and overall school performance.

Anyon, J. (1980). Social class and the hidden curriculum of work. Journal of Education, 162(1), 67–92.

In this provocative rumination, the author breaks down schools by socioeconomic classes—working class, middle class, affluent, etc.—to describe the kinds of work and rewards that each offers to their students. His initial findings point to a hierarchy of academic and social recompenses that offer students at “upper-class” schools distinct advantages over their peers.

Dutro, E. (2009). Children writing “Hard Times”: Lived experiences of poverty and the class-privileged assumptions of a mandated curriculum. Language Arts, 87(2), 89–98. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.colorado.edu/education/faculty/elizabethdutro/docs/
Dutro_Children%20Writing%20’Hard%20Times’.pdf


This article revolves around the contrast between lived poverty (as described by students in a working-class school) and the description of that condition as presented in current research and academic literature. Described here in detail are the assumptions of that curriculum, as well as students’ reactions to illustrations of poverty in their own reading, and implications for instruction in classrooms characterized by economic diversity.

Gorski, P. (2008). The myth of the culture of poverty. Educational Leadership, 65(7), 32–36. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr08/vol65/num07/The-Myth-of-the-Culture-of-Poverty.aspx

In this brief but highly informative piece, the author tackles some of the most prevalent and widespread cultural myths surrounding the poor and suggests steps that educators can take to disarm those myths and help their students to achieve.

Harry, B., & Klingner, J. (2007). Discarding the deficit model. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 16–21. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb07/vol64/num05/Discarding-the-Deficit-Model.aspx

The “deficit model” of exceptional students is built around the language of an absence or lack of ability. Here, the authors argue against this approach, discuss the cost of conceptualizing certain students as incapable relative to their peers, and suggest a new vision of describing—and engaging—student differences.

Menken, K., & Kleyn, T. (2009). The difficult road for long-term English learners. Educational Leadership, 66(7). Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/apr09/vol66/num07/The_Difficult_Road_for_Long-Term_English_Learners.aspx

Who are English language learners and what are their specific challenges? This piece sets out to answer that question, first offering the specific stories of individual young people and their classroom histories and then proposing some reforms to help ELLs get the best education outcomes possible.

Ready, D. D., & Wright, D. L. (2011). Accuracy and inaccuracy in teacher’s perceptions of young children’s cognitive abilities: The role of child background and classroom context. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 335–360. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://aer.sagepub.com/content/48/2/335.full

In this informative piece, the authors examine the role that teacher perception of student abilities and socioeconomic circumstances play in the kind of instruction they offer those students. What they find suggests that, in fact, those perceptions might play as important and influential a role as do the circumstances themselves, leading teachers to routinely underestimate their students’ capabilities and shaping their instruction to meet a false set of standards.

Sato, M., & Lensmire, T. J. (2008). Poverty and Payne: Supporting teachers to work with children of poverty. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 365–370.

Stereotypes about poor children influence the way that teachers engage them in the classroom. In this piece, the authors examine the most prevalent of those misperceptions and offer some strategies for dispelling them.

Books

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Executive summary: Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

With increased language diversity in the nation’s schools comes the challenge of how best to teach today’s students. This executive summary outlines the findings and recommendations of the Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. On hand here is a demographic overview, plus an examination of the role of socio-economic contexts on literacy development and a synthesis of language and literacy assessment.

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

In this book, the author lays out the argument that the best way to address the persistent problem of low achievement among diverse students is to offer those students instruction that is filtered through their own cultural contexts. Included are thoughts on cultural stereotypes that influence classroom instruction and achievement, as well as detailed examples of culturally responsive teaching and programs.

Grant, C. A., & Sleeter, C. E. (2007). Doing multicultural education for achievement and equity. New York: Routledge.

Now more than ever, teachers must prepare to encounter diverse student populations whose learning needs might not be immediately apparent. In this study, the authors detail some of the ways that teachers can best prepare themselves for the challenges of today’s classrooms, including notes on the effects of students’ socioeconomic status on learning outcomes and teacher perceptions and the cultural and social realities in which schools exist, among much else.

McLoyd, V. C., Hill, N. E., & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.). (2005). African American family life: Ecological and cultural diversity. New York: Guilford Press.

Here, a range of authors examines the current state and future directions of black families in the United States today. On hand are detailed looks at the way current public policy affects African American’s lives on a variety of fronts, cultural, social, and educational.

Online Resources

Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Education English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Retrieved on January 22, 2013, from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/3/EducatingELLsBuildingTeacherCapacityVol1.pdf

This report provides effective and relevant resources for teachers and other practitioners working with English language learners who may still need support in acquiring and using language in the classroom.

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2004). Universal Design for Learning. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from https://www.cast.org/research/udl/index.html

This handy and compact online resource outlines the basics of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). A link to common questions—and answers—about UDL is also here for further exploration.

Ford, K. (2005). Fostering literacy development in English language learners. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/12924/

This informative resource outlines some of the most common challenges facing students as they develop second-language literacy in English. Included are thoughts on the importance of phonological skills and implications for instruction of recent research.

National Center on Educational Outcomes. http://www.cehd.umn.edu/nceo/

The Website of the National Center on Educational Outcomes is a storehouse of information about students of all kinds. On hand here are links to information about academic standards, ELL students with disabilities, tools for improving student access to the general education curriculum, and much, much more.

National Center for Education Statistics (2008). Characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States: 2005–2006 (NCES 2008-339). Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/pub_100_largest.asp

One way to see the ways in which schools—and students—have changed over the years is to access this online resource that houses reports on the nation’s largest schools going back to the late 1980s. An important tool for those wishing more information about the rapid shift in student demographics.

National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities http://www.ndpc-sd.org/

The online home of the National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities offers information and resources to help states to document and curb the relatively high dropout rates common among students with exceptionalities. Visitors will find links to tips on writing and reviewing annual performance results and toolkits for school leaders, teachers, and parents.

Toldson, I. A., & Lewis, C. W. (2012). Challenge the status quo: Academic success among school-age African American males. Washington, DC: Congressional Black Caucus Foundation. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.cbcfinc.org/oUploadedFiles/CTSQ.pdf

This report from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation takes a public policy look at how to bridge the achievement gap among the nation’s black students. Recommendations include steps to address inequities in teacher assignment and the unbalance in salary among teachers who lead classrooms in diverse school districts, among much else.

U.S. Department of Education. (2015). English learner tool kit. Retrieved on December 15, 2015, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/english-learner-toolkit/index.html

This online resource is designed to help state and local education agencies to fulfill their legal obligations to English language learners in their classrooms. Included are links to information on staffing and supporting ELL programs, assessment and evaluation of those programs, and creating inclusive environments for all learners, among much else.

Watson, D. (2012). A message from a black mom to her son. Rethinking Schools, 26(3), 1–2. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/26_03/26_03_watson.shtml

This open letter from an African-American woman to her school age son addresses, in the most personal way possible, the struggles faced by diverse students and the ways in which their teachers’—and their society’s—preconceptions about them and their abilities too often unfairly shape their educational outcomes and futures.

Williams, P. 92007). Disproportionality and overrepresentation (Module 5). Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 Training Curriculum. Washington, DC: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://nichcy.org/laws/idea/legacy/module5

This online module, produced by the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, examines the problem of the overrepresentation of diverse students in special education services. Included are links for a trainer’s guide to explain the module’s use, handouts for participants (in English and Spanish), and a slideshow to help get participants up to speed on current IDEA regulations.

Zurita, M. (2005). Improving the education of Latino students. Minority Student Achievement Network: Invitational Paper Series. Retrieved on January 17, 2013, from http://msan.wceruw.org/publications/Invite%20Latino%20Students%202005.pdf

This informative online resource offers research and thoughts on educating the fastest growing minority population in the United States today. Readers will find information on high school completion and college enrollment rates among Latino populations, computer and Internet access, and detailed thoughts about future directions for public and school policy

Module: Classroom Management (Part 1): Learning the Components of a Comprehensive Behavior Management Plan

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Articles

Guardino, C. A., & Fullerton, E. (2010). Changing behaviors by changing the classroom environment. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 42(6), 8–13. Retrieved on May 11, 2012, from http://files.csd.org/linked_files/Special%20Ed/nov_2010/FBA_BIP_WS_11-23-2010/resource_not_required/Changing%20Behaviors%20by%20Changing%20 the%20Classroom%20Environment%20article.pdf

In this article, the authors argue that by changing (or simply rearranging) the physical environment of the classroom, teachers can affect and even decrease incidents of disruptive behavior. Included is a round-up of the relevant research, as well as questions for teachers to ask themselves before, during, and after the modification process and data representing the effectiveness of redefining a given classroom’s learning areas.

Myers, D., Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., & Sugai, G. (2017). Classroom management with exceptional learners. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 223–230.

It’s difficult to overstate the importance of effective classroom management to improved student learning outcomes. The authors of this article provide information about a classroom management framework that seeks to improve the likelihood of positive student behaviors through the teaching and establishing of routines, as well as the application of behavior-specific praise and error correction. A list of reliable resources is likewise included.

Olive, E. C. (2004). Practical tools for positive behavior facilitation. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 13(1), 43–47.Retrieved on April 24, 2012, from http://www.rocketinc.net/downloads/PBF_Journal_Article.pdf

This article lays out the particulars of the classroom behavior management method called Positive Behavior Facilitation (PBF). Included here are notes and thoughts on assessment and communication, as well as the various pieces of PBF, among them awareness and management and how to develop an understanding of the dynamics behind classroom conflict.

Books

Capini, E. (2008). Classroom management for all teachers: Plans for evidence-based practice (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

This guidebook outlines ten, research-based classroom management plans for use by teachers of all grade levels. Chapters include an overview of classroom management as an evidenced-based practice, tips on encouraging positive compliance, an explanation of an “individual disruptive incident barometer”, and rules for increasing in-seat behavior, among much, much else.

Evertson, C. M., & Emmer, E. T. (2013). Classroom management for elementary teachers (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

This detail and information-rich book serves as a guide for the development, implementation, and maintenance of a comprehensive behavior management plan at the elementary school level. Chapters address everything from the material arrangement of classrooms to the establishment of rules and procedures to notes on how to manage problem behaviors. Sections include suggested activities, case studies, and recommendations for further reading.

Online Resources

Metropolitan Center for Urban Education. (2008, October). Culturally responsive classroom management strategies. Retrieved on April 24, 2012, from http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/005/121/Culturally%20 Responsive%20Classroom%20Mgmt%20Strat2.pdf

This brief but useful resource lays out some of the basics of classroom behavior management through the lens of cultural awareness and sensitivity. Included are ruminations on the importance of recognizing one’s own cultural biases, as well as thoughts on the impact of students’ cultural, political, and socio-economic circumstances in helping to determine the effectiveness of classroom behavior management methods.

Teaching Channel https://www.teachingchannel.org/

This online video library seeks to promote “inspiring and effective teaching practices in America’s schools.” The site allows visitors to sort their searches by topic, grade level, or academic subject. Of particular interest to users of this module, a section on behavior issues (https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos?page=1&categories=topics_behavior&load=1) features videos on a wide variety of related topics.

The Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) http://www.pbis.org/

This site is hosted by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) and provides a wealth of positive behavior interventions and supports. Useful information on this Website includes System-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET), School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports “o “PBIS) Blueprint, Effective Behavior Strategy (EBS) Self-Assessment Survey, and the EBS Checklist. In addition, there are links to information on functional behavioral assessments.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2010, August). Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–2009 teacher follow-up survey. Retrieved on April 24, 2012, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010353.pdf

The results of this follow-up survey on teacher attrition from the U.S. Department of Education underscores the ongoing significance of classroom behavior and behavior management in the likelihood that teachers will leave the profession.

Module: Classroom Management (Part 2): Developing Your Own Comprehensive Behavior Management Plan

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Articles

Capizzi, A. M. (2009). Start the year off right: Designing and developing a supportive classroom management plan. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(3), 1–12.

This informative article offers an overview of how teachers can go about creating an effective behavior management plan for classroom implementation. Especially useful are notes and thoughts on the continued monitoring of behavior throughout the school year.

Guardino, C. A., & Fullerton, E. (2010). Changing behaviors by changing the classroom environment. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 42(6), 8–13. Retrieved on May 11, 2012, from http://files.csd.org/linked_files/Special%20Ed/nov_2010/FBA_BIP_WS_11-23-2010/resource_not_required/Changing%20Behaviors%20by%20Changing% 20the%20Classroom%20Environment%20article.pdf

In this article, the authors argue that by changing (or simply rearranging) the physical environment of the classroom, teachers can affect and even decrease incidents of disruptive behavior. Included is a round-up of the relevant research, as well as questions for teachers to ask themselves before, during, and after the modification process and data representing the effectiveness of redefining a given classroom’s learning areas.

Olive, E. C. (2004). Practical tools for positive behavior facilitation. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 13(1), 43–47. Retrieved on April 24, 2012, from http://www.rocketinc.net/downloads/PBF_Journal_Article.pdf

This article lays out the particulars of the classroom behavior management method called Positive Behavior Facilitation (PBF). Included here are notes and thoughts on assessment and communication, as well as the various pieces of PBF, among them awareness and management and how to develop an understanding of the dynamics behind classroom conflict.
 

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351–380. 

In this article, the authors identify and discuss twenty evidence-based behavior management practices for use in today’s classrooms. On hand are notes about engaging students in observable ways, acknowledging appropriate behavior, group reinforcement contingencies, and much, much more.

Books

Cipani, E. (2008). Classroom management for all teachers: Plans for evidence-based practice (3rd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

This practical and informative book-length study (written in non-technical language) provides a wealth information on the use of classroom behavior management plans as means to prevent, reduce the frequency of, and continually monitor disruptive behavior. The author offers notes and thoughts on numerous evidence-based behavior plans.
 

Emmer, E. T., & Evertson, C. M. (2013). Classroom management for middle and high school teachers (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

This much-used and reprinted book for middle and high school instructors has a special focus on diverse classrooms and what teachers should consider regarding student culture when developing and maintaining effective behavior management plans.
 

Evertson, C. M., & Emmer, E. T. (2013). Classroom management for elementary teachers (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

As with their work for middle and high school instructors, Evertson and Emmer have crafted this book with the special needs of elementary teachers in mind. On hand are notes and thoughts about the special needs of today’s diverse classrooms and how those needs effect an instructor’s ability to maintain an effective behavior management program.
 

Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S., eds. (2006). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This book offers in-depth essays on behavior management from a variety of perspectives and backgrounds. On hand is information about practical behavior strategies, considerations for teachers working in diverse schools, and notes on the vital importance of establishing and maintaining positive student-teacher relationships.
 

Online Resources

Metropolitan Center for Urban Education. (2008, October). Culturally responsive classroom management strategies. Retrieved on April 24, 2012, from http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/005/121/Culturally%20 Responsive%20Classroom%20Mgmt%20Strat2.pdf

This brief but useful resource lays out some of the basics of classroom behavior management through the lens of cultural awareness and sensitivity. Included are ruminations on the importance of recognizing one’s own cultural biases, as well as thoughts on the impact of students’ cultural, political, and socio-economic circumstances in helping to determine the effectiveness of classroom behavior management methods.
 

The Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) http://www.pbis.org/

This site is hosted by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) and provides a wealth of positive behavior interventions and supports. Useful information on this Website includes System-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET), School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports” or “PBIS) Blueprint, Effective Behavior Strategy (EBS) Self-Assessment Survey, and the EBS Checklist. In addition, there are links to information on functional behavioral assessments.
 

Teaching Channel https://www.teachingchannel.org

This Website houses a veritable treasure trove of informative and instructional videos on a wide variety of topics of interest to educators. Included are short clips on increasing student focus, setting and achieving high expectations, creating a positive and safe classroom environment, and much more.
 

 

Module: Family Engagement: Collaborating with Families of Students with Disabilities

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Article

Sawyer, M. (2015). Bridges: Connecting with families to facilitate and enhance involvement. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(3), 172–179.

This article contains step-by-step details on how educators might more fully involve the families of their students in the learning environment. Included are tips of the week, notes on recruiting parents for greater participation, and information on the critical importance of communication between families and educators.

Book

Gill, B. (1997). Changed by a child: Companion notes for parents of a child with a disability. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

This book contains vignettes written by the parents of children with disabilities. Topics are written from the parents’ perspective and include education, transition, parenting, grieving, and others.

Research Paper

Harris, A., & Goodall, J. (n. d.) Engaging parents in raising achievement: Do parents know they matter? University of Warwick.

This paper, commissioned by the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust and funded by the Department of Education and Skills, was emailed to Amy Harris from Sharman at the PACER Center on December 14, 2007.

Web Resources

Colorado Parent Information and Resource Center (CPIRC) http://www.cpirc.org

This site offers information on parental involvement in education, focusing particularly on early childhood education and No Child Left Behind. CPIRC provides teacher training, professional development, and technical assistance services, in addition to disseminating information to the public regarding parental involvement.

Family Village – A Global Community of Disability-Related Resources http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu

This site contains informational resources on specific diagnoses, adaptive products, technology, disability-related readings, and more for persons with disabilities, their families, and those that offer services to persons with disabilities.

Harvard Family Research Project—Family Involvement Makes a Difference http://www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/publications-series/family-involvement-makes-a-difference

These publications from the Harvard Family Research Project serve as guides to family involvement at the elementary, middle, and high-school levels. Emphasis is placed on parenting issues for children of each age as well as on home-school relationships.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Website http://idea.ed.gov/explore/home

This site was created by the United States Department of Education as a “one-stop shop” for resources related to IDEA. The topics covered include alignment with NCLB, discipline, early intervening services, secondary transition, individualized education programs, and others.

Michigan Alliance for Families http://www.michiganallianceforfamilies.org

This site contains information for children and adults with disabilities who are in the educational system. The Alliance’s goal is to increase family involvement in not only their children’s education but also in education in general.

National Center for Cultural Competence http://www11.georgetown.edu/research/gucchd/nccc/index.html

This site contains information provided by the NCCC to promote increased cultural competence. Of particular interest are the self-assessment checklists that can be found under the “Publications” link.

National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt). (2008). Building collaboration between schools and parents of English language learners: Transcending barriers, creating opportunities. Retrieved on September 3, 2013, from hhttp://www.nccrest.org/Briefs/PractitionerBrief_BuildingCollaboration.pdf

As the United States’ classrooms become increasingly language-diverse, so too does the need for educators to collaborate with the families of English language learners continue to grow. For a variety of cultural, linguistic, and socio-economic reasons, however, such collaboration can be difficult to achieve. This brief from the NCCRESt lays out many of the reasons for those difficulties and suggests some well-considered strategies for overcoming them.

National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt)—Becoming Culturally Responsive Educators: Rethinking Teacher Education Pedagogy http://www.nccrest.org/Briefs/Teacher_Ed_Brief.pdf

This publication from NCCRESt addresses the challenges related to diversity in teacher education programs and describes the traits of culturally responsive teachers.

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities http://www.nichcy.org

This site contains information on infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents with disabilities. It also provides research-based information on educational practices and resources on IDEA and No Child Left Behind.

National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center http://www.nectac.org

NECTAC is an organization within the United States Office of Special Education Programs that seeks to strengthen state and local services to ensure that children with disabilities up to age five receive research-based, culturally-appropriate supports and services.

No Child Left Behind—Engaging Parents in Education: Lessons from Five Parental Information and Resource Centers http://www.ed.gov/admins/comm/parents/parentinvolve/index.html

This publication details strategies used by Parent Information Resource Centers (PIRCs) to enhance parental involvement in public schools. The two-part guide covers building understanding of NCLB and preparing parents to take action for student learning.

PACER Center http://www.pacer.org

This site is a parent training and information center for families and youth with disabilities. Included is information for families and professionals on disability-related topics such as education, vocational training, and other services for children with disabilities.

Southwest Educational Development Laboratory http://www.sedl.org

The Southwest Educational Development laboratory (SEDL) is a private, nonprofit education research, development, and dissemination corporation based in Austin, Texas, that focuses on improving teaching and learning.

Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers & National Parent Technical Assistance Center. (2008). Fostering parent and professional collaboration. Retrieved on September 3, 2013, from http://www.parentcenternetwork.org/assets/files/Parent%20and%20Professional%20Collaboration%20Research%20Brief%20-%20Final.pdf

This informative guide to creating better and more useful collaborations between parents and education professionals includes a timeline of the relevant research, notes on overcoming communication barriers, models for emulation, and lists of steps toward meaningful partnerships for both parents and professionals, among much else.

Module: Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning

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Articles

Cox, P. R., & Dykes, M. K. (2001). Effective classroom adaptations for students with visual impairments. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(6), 69–74.

This informative article on including students with visual disabilities in the general education classroom explains terms common to visual impairments and offers tips for designing effective learning environments.

Ellis, E. S. (1997). Watering up the curriculum for adolescents with learning disabilities: Part I: Goals of the knowledge dimension. Remedial and SpecialEducation, 18(6), 326–346.

In this article, the author explores the ways in which many accommodations designed to help students succeed in classrooms actually water down the curriculum by reducing opportunities for learning. Six principles associated with making knowledge construction more meaningful are presented and discussed. Examples of instructional practices appropriate for use in inclusive classroom settings are given.

Jitendra, A. K., Edwards, L. L., Choutka, C. M., & Treadway, P. S. (2002). A collaborative approach to planning in the content areas for students with learning disabilities: Accessing the general curriculum. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17(4),252–267.

This article describes a collaborative approach to planning in content areas in order to allow students with learning disabilities to access the general education curriculum. Suggestions on selecting and organizing content, choosing activities, and making necessary accommodations and modifications are given.

Orkwis, R., & McLane, K. (1998). A curriculum every student can use: Design principlesfor student access. Arlington, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education and the Council for Exceptional Children.

This ERIC/ OSEP topical brief outlines some of the steps involved in implementing a curriculum that features universal design, which stresses access for all students. The report is available online at the CEC Website or by contacting ERIC (800-328-0272).

Books

Bender, W. (2002). Differentiating instruction for students with learning disabilities: Best teaching practices for general & special educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin; Press Council for Exceptional Children.

This book presents a wide variety of instructional strategies to help students with learning disabilities succeed in the classroom. Strategies for individualized, small-group, and whole-class instruction are included.

Lenz, B. K., Deshler, D. D., & Kissam, B. R. (Eds.). (2004). Teaching content to all:Evidence-based inclusive practices in middle and secondary schools. Boston: Pearson/ Allyn and Bacon

This book contains a wealth of information on such topics as planning a course to accommodate students with diverse abilities and implementing learning strategies in the classroom.

Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2004). The inclusive classroom: Strategies for effectiveinstruction (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/ Merrill Prentice Hall.

Highly respected researchers, Margo Mastropieri and Thomas Scruggs, present many different instructional strategies that can be implemented in general education classrooms. This book includes chapters on adapting instruction and curriculum in content classes such as social studies and science. It also addresses how to teach various study skills to students with disabilities. This text includes strategies to use with students with high-incidence or low-incidence disabilities.

The National Academies. (1996). National Science Education Standards. Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.http://books.nap.edu/books/0309053269/html/index.html

The National Science Education Standards is a book that was developed by teachers, scientists, and other experts from across the nation. It is a resource that presents core issues about science education and the effective ways in which science content may be taught to our youth. Content standards, which describe what students should know and understand scientifically at different grade levels, are presented.

Videos

Differentiating Instruction Video Series (1997). Available from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; 1703 North Beauregard Street, Alexandria, VA, 22311-1714. (800) 933-ASCD (2723).

This offering consists of two 45-minute videotapes, a 166-page Facilitator’s Guide, and How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, 2nd Edition, by Carol Ann Tomlinson. The series focuses on how to provide all students with the opportunity to learn, analyzes differentiated learning tasks, and addresses how to plan differentiated lessons and how to manage a differentiated classroom.

Online resources

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) http://www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd/index.jsp/

ASCD is a membership-based organization of educators and provides resources relevant to effective teaching practices. Topics on the site include differentiated instruction and curriculum mapping. Excerpts from Heidi Jacobs’ book Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating Curriculum and Assessment K–12 can also be accessed at the site. A selection of books is available in the online store.

Glencoe Onlinehttp://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/37

A Curriculum Mapping Primer located at this Website offers helpful information on curriculum mapping, why it is needed, and how the process works. “The Teaching Today” section provides helpful information on differentiating instruction and strategies to use in the classroom. Use the search engine at Teaching Today to help locate information.

LD Onlinehttp://www.ldonline.org

LD Online is an excellent resource for topics related to learning disabilities, often providing excerpts from both books and articles and also linking to articles at other Websites. Teaching Strategies and Techniques is an excellent source for teacher-friendly tips on instructional strategies to use in the classroom.

National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (NCAC)http://www.cec.sped.org//AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&WebsiteKey=ccc2b576-80bf-48af-8827-0acb530166fb

NCAC is the result of a collaborative agreement between the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Programs (OSEP) and the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). The vision of NCAC is to explore how new curricula, teaching practices, and policies can be woven together to create practical approaches for improved access to the general curriculum by students with disabilities. “The Research, Solutions & Publications” link is especially informative.

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)http://www.nichcy.org

NICHCY is a national dissemination center that provides information on special education law, No Child Left Behind, and effective research-based educational practices. The “Our Publications” link is perhaps the most helpful and provides an alphabetical listing in both English and Spanish of special education topics. “Adaptations and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities” leads to an extensive list of resources on adaptations and accommodations.

PACER Centerhttp://www.pacer.org/

PACER (Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights) Center is a parent organization that provides assistance to both families and professionals working with children with disabilities. The “PACER Center Articles” link on the home page leads to a listing of various informative articles. “PHP-c49: School Accommodations and Modifications” is a helpful article outlining possible adaptations for the classroom.

Module: Creating an Inclusive School Environment: A Model for School Leaders

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Articles and Books

Bartlett, L. D., Weisenstein, G. R., & Etscheidt, S. (2002). Successful inclusion for educational leaders. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/ Prentice Hall.

One of the most complicated issues surrounding inclusion is the nature and requirements of existing federal laws. This book-length work presents a useful and useable explanation of that law, and includes a veritable catalogue of relevant topics including suggestions for working with parents and thoughts about IEPs.

Brigharm, N., Morocco, C. C., Clay, K., & Zigmond, N. (2006). What makes a high school a good high school for students with disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research &
Practice, 21(3), 184–190.

This useful article presents a summary of a study centered around three high schools. The authors examined school practices related to the education of students with disabilities, including the relative success of the schools’ efforts toward inclusion. Reflections on a systemic approach to school reform and transformation follow the data.

Brigharm, N., Parker, C. E., Morocco, C. C., & Zigmond, N. (2006). Apalachee high school: The last real high school in America: “You don’t go to Apalachee. You belong to it.” Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21(3), 172–183.

The authors of this article followed the navigation of three students with disabilities through the established supports and programs at a Florida high school. The extent to which that pathway to academic and social success were effective among exceptional students is the subject of the study. A reflection on the findings—and their implications to a broader application—is included.

Capper, C. A., & Frattura, E. M. (2009). Meeting the needs of students of all abilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

This book offers a systematic, step-by-step approach to the task of creating an inclusive environment in any school. An interpretation of the relevant federal law, as well as an examination of the preparation necessary before school change can be undertaken, are among its many topics.

Dettmer, P., Thurston, L. P., Knackendoffel, A., & Dyck, N. J. (2009). Consultation, collaboration, and teamwork for students with special needs. Boston: Pearson, 6th Ed.

This workbook for instructors is an invaluable resource for sample syllabi, assessments, activities, and quizzes and tests. Chapters on English language learners and the current federal law pertaining to students with special needs are also on hand.

DiPaola, M. F., Walther-Thomas, C. (2003). Principals in special education: The critical role of school leaders (COPSSE Document No. IB-7E). Gainesville: University of Florida, Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.

This work takes a look at the ways in which school leaders shape the effective implementation of special education in their schools. Among its topics is an examination of the role of principals as applies to all students in a school, whether with disabilities or otherwise. A number of suggestions and reflections on the future of such school leadership follow.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success: How we can learn to fulfill our potential. New York: Ballantine.

This book by a professor of psychology examines the problems and perils that arise when one has too much a fixed mindset and offers advice on how to change to a more flexible way of looking at the world and oneself. A useful tool for school leaders who wish to implement change in their schools and who might face opposition from teachers used to their routines and ways of looking at the potentials of various kinds of students.

Guzman, N. (1997). Leadership for successful inclusive schools: A study of principal behaviors. Journal of Educational Administration, 35(3), 439–450.

In this piece, the authors examine the methods and guiding philosophies of six successful elementary school principals, with a focus on their efforts toward creating inclusive environments. Commonalities among the six—each was, for example, deeply involved in the creation of IEPs, and took a leadership role in communications with parents of students with disabilities—are discussed in detail.

King, K. A., Capullo, K., Kozleski, E. B., & Gonzales, J. (2009). Inclusive education for equity. Professional Learning for Equity Module Series. Tempe, AZ: The Equity Alliance at ASU.

Developed by the Equity Alliance at Arizona State University, this detailed and expansive module offers a deep look at inclusive education. On hand are working definitions of inclusion, as well as a look at validated methods for inclusive instruction, revealing activities, and a worksheet for assessing inclusive curricula.

Kleinert, H. L., Miracle, S. A., & Sheppard-Jone, K. (2007, August). Including students with moderate and severe disabilities in extracurricular and community recreation activities: Steps to success. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(6), 33–38. School life, of course, extends beyond the classroom.

This article considers how teachers and school leaders can include students with exceptionalities in both extracurricular activities as well as community-based ones. An examination of a statewide survey of teachers is discussed and recommendations for greater levels of inclusion offered.

Lingo, A. S., Barton-Arwood, S. M., & Jolivette, K. (2011). Teachers working together: Improving learning outcomes in the inclusive classroom—Practical strategies and examples. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), 6–13.

This article examines a number of detailed and concrete strategies teachers can employ to improve the overall instructional outcomes in their classrooms. As the title suggests, there’s an emphasis on teacher collaboration, with thoughts and evaluations (both pro and con) of various methods of progress monitoring and measurement. Also on hand are notes on event recording and collaboration steps and considerations. Implications for teachers going forward round out the effort.

Morocco, C. C., Aguilar, C. M., Clay, K., Brigham, N., & Zigmond, N. (2006). Good high schools for students with disabilities: Introduction to the special issue. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21(3), 135–145.

This introduction to a special issue about inclusion involves a search for three “good high schools,” their commonalties, what were their strategies for educating students with disabilities, and the implications of what it all means for schools across the nation.

Morocco, C. C., Clay, K., Parker, C. E., & Zigmond, N. (2006). Walter Cronkite high school: A culture of freedom and responsibility. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21(3), 146–158.

Among the high school selected for inclusion in the study mentioned above was New York’s Walter Cronkite High. In this article, the authors examine WCH’s action theory of inclusion, as well as its concept of the “assembled puzzle” whereby students with disabilities are provided with access to the general education curriculum and the other opportunities that go along with school life. Specifically, the case of three students of the school is examined, and a look at a broader data set is included.

Pavri, S., & Monda-Amaya, L. (2001). Social support in inclusive schools: Student and teacher perspectives. Exceptional Children, 67(3), 391–411.

This article collects and compares the recorded assessments and observations of both teachers and students in inclusive classrooms. Findings suggest that students feel a sense of isolation even in some inclusive environments and that there may be a gap between what such students perceive as helpful models of inclusion and those favored by their instructors. Implications are discussed.

Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal’s role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of the normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of Educational Research, 70(1), 55–81.

In this article, the author examines the role of school principals in leading reform efforts toward creating an inclusive school environment, concluding that, “Administrative work that accomplishes these tasks can be thought of as a form of practice, with moral, epistemological, constitutive, and discursive dimensions.” An expansive definition of the purpose of inclusion as an instrument of social justice is considered.

Staub, D. (2005). Inclusion and the other kids: Here’s what research shows so far about inclusion’s effect on nondisabled students. On Point Series. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/OP_Kids.pdf

This study issued by the National Institute for Urban School Improvement looks at the effects of inclusion on non-disabled students, a common concern and source of confusion among both school personnel and the general public. Though the research is at present incomplete, current findings suggest that inclusive environments do nothing to academically harm non-disabled students and indeed may present a number of positive externalities—more diverse friendships, the development of expanded social skills, and an enriched system of personal principles, among them—of benefit to them and their peers with disabilities.

Presentation

Access to the General Curriculum. (n.d.). Leadership & vision: A systemic approach to student success. PowerPoint presentation.

This PowerPoint presentation created by Access to the General Curriculum lays out a systematized approach to creating general education access for all students, whether they have disabilities or otherwise. A useful tool for beginning to create one’s own vision for school transformation.

Web Resources

Beloin, K. S., & DeHart, P. (2001). The Wisconsin rural-urban schooling research project, 1998-–2001. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from
http://docs.google.com/viewera=v&q=cache:4joxsX3OZj4J:www.wholeschooling.net/
WS/WSPress/WSRptWI/WSR%2520WI%2520Cross%2520Schls%2520Report.pdf+The+Wisconsin+rural-urban+schooling+research+project,+1998-%E2%80%932001&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESga1HH-ZoTkquJodprtfCrJb1x4Ex0uJ7ChdI5MenWglN8_FjPThhtLSE-v9Q1fB0Bs90SOQzHOxazk2ZdyGAkVfXYLndN5Y-q0nCAEKNW3sGTb1_s94fUqpJrGO16G2PMOnuZl&sig=AHIEtbQ4Mpr5q58p4g40MLhSnZM_3hE86Q


This study examined eight Wisconsin schools and compiled data on them across a number of metrics during a three-year period. The findings support the contention that more and more students are allowed access to the general education curriculum, as well as that such access proved a “valuable experience” for most students.

California Department of Education and WestEd. (2011). The California School Climate Survey (CSCS). Retrieved on January 4, 2011, from http://cscs.wested.org

This survey, which could serve as a prototype for other states, gathers information aimed at increasing teacher retention and promoting a positive school climate. It includes twenty-four questions focused specifically on students with IEPs and is designed to use data on personnel perceptions and concerns to guide program and service improvement. (Please note that IRIS does not endorse or promote any specific survey. The CSCS is included here merely as an example.)

Florida Inclusion Network. (2006). F.A.C.T. folio: Administrative tools for inclusive schools. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.floridainclusionnetwork.com/Uploads/1/docs/AdminFFVol2.pdf 

This handy factsheet created by the Florida Inclusion Network offers helpful tips and advice for creating an inclusive school environment. Quick tips and bullet points include “How You Can Support Effective Collaborative Teaching” and “Models of Effective Collaboration.”

Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008, June). Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from
http://www.tqsource.org/publications/TeacherPreparationtoDeliverInclusiveServices.pdf

Sponsored by the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, this paper offers a review of the policy surrounding the provision of inclusive services. Among its other numerous offerings is a legal explanation of the concept of “least-restrictive environments” and a comprehensive take on the configuration of inclusive services, including a variety of models.

Institute on Disability/ UCED. (2009). Including Samuel. Website for the film. Accessed on June 23, 2010, from http://www.includingsamuel.com/home.aspx

This is the official Website of Including Samuel, a documentary directed by Dan Habib, whose son Samuel has cerebral palsy. Including Samuel—as its name and inclusion here suggest—takes a detailed look at Habib family’s determination that Samuel share in the various facets of their lives. Included at the site are information about viewing the film, as well as a number of resources related to inclusion.

Kluth, P. (2005). Is your school inclusive? Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.paulakluth.com/readings/inclusive-schooling/is-your-school-inclusive/

This useful Website (available in a handy printable version) offers a detailed, bulleted checklist for those who wish to assess the extent to which their school represents an inclusive environment. On hand are thoughts and reflections on the characteristics of inclusive schools, as well as a look at the transition between inclusion as a theory and a practical application.

LeadScape. (n.d.). Schoolwide instructional design: Clustering students and teachers for optimal early intervening. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://ea.niusileadscape.org/docs/FINAL_PRODUCTS/LearningCarousel/InstructionalDesign08.pdf

These slides, produced by LeadScape, stand as a useful tool for creating in-school support structures for early intervening. Examples of support structure “maps”—as well as blank versions of same—are on hand to guide teachers and school leaders as they make their way through the process.

Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education. (n.d.). Tools and strategies for inclusive schools. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.mcieinclusiveschools.org/

This Website of the Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education is an invaluable resource for those planning to create an inclusive school environment. On hand are resources and links, an extensive bibliography, and detailed notes on district, school, and student planning.

NIUSI. (2006). Systemic change framework rubrics assessment handbook: Rubrics for urban schools: Assessing education for all. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/rubrics/assessment_handbook.pdf?v_document_name=Assessment%20Handbook

Under the assumption that schools will benefit from a shared, systemic approach to creating and maintaining better and more inclusive environments, the National Institute for Urban School Improvement presents this module of rubrics for everything from the assessment of district-level reform efforts, to those of individual professionals within the school.

NIUSI. (2000, June). Improving education: The promise of inclusive schooling. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/IE02.pdf?v_document_name=Improving%20Education%20Booklet

This resource produced by the National Institute for Urban School Improvement presents a detailed examination of what inclusion is and how and why schools ought to make efforts toward inclusive reform. On hand are specific stories about the benefits of inclusion for students with disabilities, as well as helpful record sheets for those who wish to visit inclusive school and take notes about their characteristics.

Rozycki, E. G. (2004). Mission, vision & delusion in schooling. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.newfoundations.com/EGR/VisionDelusion.html

This amusing and informative take on the way that school mission statements tend toward grandeur offers reflections on “Assessing Visions and Missions” and “Educator Dementia,” while urging schools to come “at the vision and mission statements from a research and implementation perspective.”

Schwartz, I. S., & Green, C. (2002, December). Inclusive schools: Good for kids: Reconsidering our definition of inclusion and redefining its outcomes for all childrenRetrieved on November 10, 2011, from
http://www.spannj.org/pti/Inclusion_Good_for_Kids.pdf

Prepared by the National Institute for Urban School Improvement, this resource offers a detailed definition of inclusion and outcomes for all students. On hand also is a model for a Community of Practice and reflections on the interactions and relationships necessary to create and maintain a successful environment of inclusion.

TeacherVision. (1993). Keys to successful inclusion: Including students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/special-education/resource/2972.html

This convenient and informative checklist offers an at-a-glance overview of inclusion and what is required to create an school-wide inclusive environment. Included are bullets on school support and collaboration, as well as offerings on instructional methods and attitudes beliefs. A sample scenario and bibliography round out the effort.

UNESCO. (2005). Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all. Retrieved on June 23, 2010, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001402/140224e.pdf

This offering from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization offers a systemic plan for the inclusion of students of all kinds in the general education curriculum. Positing inclusion as a human right, it argues that the creation of inclusive environments is the only way to fulfill the promise of education to children today and tomorrow. Included are tools for policy makers and educational planners, as well as a bibliography for those who wish to pursue the topic further.
 

Module: CSR: A Reading Comprehension Strategy

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Boardman, A. G., Vaughn, S., Buckley, P., Reutebuch, C., Roberts, G., & Klingner, J. (2016). Collaborative strategic reading for students with learning disabilities in upper elementary classrooms. Exceptional Children, 82(4), 409–427.

The authors of this study found a significant increase in reading comprehension among students with learning disabilities in fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms where teachers employed CSR. The article describes the methodology and assessment measures, and includes a detailed discussion of the implications of the research for future study, classroom instruction, and professional development.

Brown, C. L. (2007). Supporting English language learners in content-reading. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 32–39.

This article explores the multiple issues and challenges (e.g., syntax, vocabulary, background knowledge) related to content-area reading as they exist for English language learners. It offers three recommendations for content-area instructors to support and improve the development of reading comprehension skills for ELL students.

Capin, P., & Vaughn, S. (2017). Improving reading and social studies learning for secondary students with reading disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 249–261.

This article examines the effect on student literacy outcomes of secondary content-area subjects in which the method of instruction tends to rely heavily on sources of information other than text. To help promote better reading comprehension, the authors recommend the use of Promoting Adolescents’ Comprehension of Text (PACT) and collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as effective methods of developing reading comprehension skills while also addressing the need to build content knowledge.

Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (2000). The helping behaviors of fifth graders while using collaborative strategic reading during ESL content classes. TESOL Quarterly, 34(1), 69–98.

This article presents information regarding the manner and frequency with which English language learners assist their peers when using collaborative strategic reading in small groups. It also offers explanation of and research regarding the reading strategy, as well as classroom implications.

Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Arguelles, M. E., Hughes, M. T., & Ahwee, S. (2004). Collaborative strategic reading: Real world lessons from classroom teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 291–302.

This article details a year-long study that used five intervention and five control teachers from a total of five schools to measure the effectiveness of collaborative reading strategies. The discussion of the study offers practical applications for classroom teachers.

Palmer, B. C., Shackelford, V. S., Miller, S. C., & Leclere, J. T. (2006). Bridging two worlds: Reading comprehension, figurative language instruction, and the English- language learner. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(4), 258–267.

According to the authors, the purpose of this article is to offer and explain to teachers some of the specific interpretation strategies that can be used to help English language learners comprehend figurative language. Some of these include contextual dialogue, visualization, modeling, and classroom use of native language.

Payton, J. W., Munro, S., O-Brien, M. U., & Roger P. (2006). Common ground: Cooperative learning helps create the essential skill of working (and compromising within a group). Edutopia, 53–55.

Last in a series of ten articles offering ideas to improve schools, this article focuses on the big idea of cooperative learning. It discusses how the use of what used to be called “soft skills” (i.e., collaboration, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation) benefits students in today’s classrooms.

Sencibaugh, J. M. (2007). Meta-Analysis of reading comprehension interventions for students with learning disabilities: Strategies and implications. Reading Improvement 44(1), 6–22.

This article details the author’s study of the metacognitve instructional strategies used to improve the reading comprehension skills of learning disabled students. It offers a discussion of the techniques found to provide the most significant student gains. Concluding, the author translates his findings into implications for classroom practice.

Tam, K. Y., Heward, W. L., & Heng, M. A. (2006). A reading instruction intervention program for English-language learners who are struggling readers. The Journal of Special Education, 40(2), 79–93.

This article presents an overview of three essential components of reading instruction for language minority students: vocabulary instruction, error correction, and fluency building. It discusses the results of the implementation of the strategies in a public school with 500 students, 100 of who are labeled English-language learners.

Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts (2000). Professional development guide: Enhancing reading comprehension for secondary students—part II. Austin, TX: Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. Retrieved on April 22, 2008, from http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/secondary_comprehension_se.asp

This invaluable tool can be used as a resource to teach educators about Collaborative Reading Strategies. The suggested activities are complemented by video and overhead transparencies, which can be used to facilitate a workshop.

Willingham, D. T. (2006). The usefulness of brief instruction in reading comprehension strategies. American Educator, Winter, 39–45, 50.

This article is a response, published in the “Ask the Cognitive Scientist” column, to a reader who posed the question, “What about reading comprehension strategies? Isn’t it important to teach children comprehension strategies to help them get everything out of what they read?” The author responds by offering research he feels is “clear and strong enough to merit classroom application.”

Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla

This site, the online home of the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts (VGC) at the College of Education, at the University of Texas at Austin, houses information related to reading comprehension intervention and ELLs and ESLs, among many other relevant topics.

Module: Cultural and Linguistic Differences: What Teachers Should Know

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Articles

Rossell, C. (2004/ 2005). Teaching English through English: The mandate for sheltered English immersion programs in California has demonstrated the benefits of teaching English language learners in English. Educational Leadership Journal, 62(4), 32–36.

In this article, the author takes up the question of teaching English language learners in English, as opposed to “sheltering” them by providing bilingual instruction. The author’s research into California schools indeed reveals that some overall improvement in mathematics and reading performance is present among students taught primarily in English.

Zwiers, J. (2004/ 2005). The third language of academic English: Five key mental habits help English language learners acquire the language of school. Educational Leadership Journal, 62(4), 60–63.

The author argues that academic English—that is, the language of learning and abstract concepts—is a kind of third language for English language learners, one that they must be explicitly taught in addition to their routine (social) English instruction. Here he outlines five instructional practices for teachers to help their students to improve their comprehension of academic English and its uses in the classroom and beyond.

Books

Gonzalez, N., Moll, L. C., & Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households, communities, and classrooms, New York: Routledge.

In this book-length treatment, the authors argue that instruction (and, indeed, school culture) should be linked with and responsive to the local community culture. Educators should develop a familiarity with their community’s strengths and individual characteristics as a means through which to improve student outcomes.

Winton, P. J., McCollum, J. A., & Catlett, C. (Eds.) (2008). Practical approaches to early childhood professional development: Evidence, Strategies, and Resources. Washington, DC.

This work serves as a detailed resource for professional developers and college faculty engaged in the training of future educators. The key to improved educational outcomes for all students is to better prepare educators and service providers to meet the challenges of tomorrow’s classrooms, including those of culturally and linguistically diverse students.

Online Resources

The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Race matters: Unequal opportunities for school readiness. Retrieved on December 12, 2008, from http://www.aecf.org/upload/publicationfiles/fact_sheet2.pdf

This information resource—produced by Baltimore’s Annie E. Casey Foundation—lays out detailed information regarding the public consequences of inequality in the resource distribution that helps to prepare children for school. Included are thoughts on various barriers to equal opportunity, including poverty and the “cultural misalignment of institutions.”

The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Race Matters: Unequal Opportunities in Education. Retrieved on December 12, 2008, from http://www.aecf.org/upload/publicationfiles/fact_sheet3.pdf

Similar to the resource described above, this short and informative online guide provides details about the public cost of inequality in America’s schools. Topics include the ongoing problem of racial segregation and inequalities in available resources and teacher quality. A short section on strategies to improve equal opportunity in the nation’s schools is also included.

Foster, M. (2002). Using call-and-response to facilitate language mastery and literacy acquisition among African American students. Retrieved September 19, 2008, from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0204foster.html

In this article, the author examines recent attempts to use the unique attributes of African American English as a means of improving instruction and outcomes for African American students. Previous efforts had been on “correcting” the students and imposing a more formalized linguistic model on them, regardless of the effect on learning results.

Jeynes, W. H. (2005). Parental involvement and student achievement: A meta-analysis. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://www.hfrp.org/family-involvement/publications-resources/ parental-involvement-and-student-achievement-a-meta-analysis

Here the author looks at several dozen studies to determine the interrelation between parental involvement and student outcomes. A correlation between higher levels of involvement and improved academic performance is indeed determined to exist across the data, and the implications of same are discussed.

U.S. Department of Education. (2015). English learner tool kit. Retrieved on December 15, 2015, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/english-learner-toolkit/index.html

This online resource is designed to help state and local education agencies to fulfill their legal obligations to English language learners in their classrooms. Included are links to information on staffing and supporting ELL programs, assessment and evaluation of those programs, and creating inclusive environments for all learners, among much else.

Module: Differentiated Instruction: Maximizing the Learning of All Students

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Articles

Brimijoin, K., Marquissee, E., & Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Using data to differentiate instruction. Educational Leadership, 60(5), 70–73. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb03/vol60/num05/Using-Data-to-Differentiate-Instruction.aspx

The data-based approach to differentiation gets the treatment in this article. The authors suggest using the assessment data made available by the drive toward yearly standards to create an effective learning environment for more students. Under discussion are “three-dimensional data collection” and the use of assessment information to target learner needs, among much else.
 

Carolan, J., & Guinn, A. (2007). Differentiation: Lessons from master teachers. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 44–47. Retrieved from http://www.cgu.edu/PDFFiles/ses/TEIP/ReachThemtoTeachThem%5B1%5D.pdf

This informative piece examines the methods and practices of classroom differentiation of several veteran teachers. Included here is a discussion of potential barriers to differentiation and how to overcome them, as well as the importance of personalization and using the strengths of one’s students to improve learning outcomes.
 

Tomlinson, C. A., & Doubet, K. (2005). Reach them to teach them. Educational Leadership, 62(7), 8–15. Retrieved from http://www.cgu.edu/PDFFiles/ses/TEIP/ReachThemtoTeachThem%5B1%5D.pdf

This intriguing article details the attempts of four high school instructors to engage their students on an individual level and thereby improve their academic outcomes. On hand are a writing teacher striving to get her students excited about literature and letters, a biology instructor working to energize his classroom with experiments and a sense of discovery, a history and geography teacher making connections between his students and their learning, and a anatomy teachers who uses interaction and a respectful atmosphere to create an environment where learning is fun and vital.
 

Wormeli, R. (2006). Differentiating for tweens. Educational Leadership, 63(7), 14–19. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr06/vol63/num07/Differentiating-for-Tweens.aspx

This interesting piece lays out a number of strategies for engaging and teaching pre-teen students. Included are notes on allowing more than one way for students to reach yearly standards, teaching to individual student needs, and a rather inventive lesson on the perils of plagiarism.

Book

Benjamin, A. (2002). Differentiated instruction: A guide for middle and high school teachers. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. 

This book-length work details the initial process, foundations, and effective execution of classroom differentiation in middle and high school. Included is a useful section on differentiation for English language learners (ELL), which details specific examples of English instruction for students from various cultures and language traditions.

Web Resources

ASCD. (n.d.). Differentiated instruction. Website page. http://www.ascd.org/research-a-topic/differentiated-instruction-resources.aspx

This section of the ASCD Website collects links and online resources having to do with differentiated instruction in the classroom. Visitors will find a simple definition of differentiation, as well as links to articles, books, and online multimedia resources. A list of differentiation experts and information and tools outside the ASCD site are also included.
 

Dahlman, A., Hoffman, P., & Brauhn, S. (n.d.). Classroom strategies and tools for differentiating instruction in the ESL classroom. http://minnetesol.org/journal/vol25_html_pages/17_Dahlman.htm

This detailed paper sets out a number of steps toward the implementation of differentiated instruction in the classroom. Included are notes about creating learning profiles about students and their instructional needs, identifying appropriate learning goals for the entire classroom, and specific steps for the successful implementation of the strategy.
 

Differentiation Central. (n.d.). Video archive. Webpage. http://differentiationcentral.com/videos.html

This Webpage hosts a wealth of videos from experts on differentiated instruction. Categories address common misconceptions about differentiated instruction, differentiation at various academic levels, instructional strategies, and professional development, among much, much more.
 

Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2011). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementationhttp://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/udl/DifferentiatedInstructionHTML.asp

This resource examines the link between differentiated instruction and the Universal Design for Learning strategy in today’s classrooms. On hand are detailed notes on identifying the components and features of both methods, as well as process guidelines and a discussion of the current evidence of effectiveness of both instructional strategies.
 

Huber, J. J. (2010). Culturally responsive differentiated instruction. PowerPoint presentation from the 2010 AEMP Education Forum, Los Angeles Unified School District. http://www.equityallianceatasu.org/sites/default/files/9.pdf

These PowerPoint slides offer ruminations, research, and impetus for those seeking to create a differentiated learning environment in their classrooms. Included are keys to the differentiated classroom, as well as notes on the timing of change and tips for effective planning and implementation.
 

Sacco, S. (n.d.). What differentiated instruction is, and what it most certainly is nothttp://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol4/425-newvoices.aspx

This short online reference lays out an emphatic definition of the instructional strategy from the point of view of a teacher who learned through a process of trial-and-error.
 

Willoughby, J. (2000). Differentiating instruction: Meeting students where they arehttp://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/di_meeting.phtml

This brief but informative online resource combines a practical definition of differentiation and a step-by-step formula for laying out its foundations in the classroom. A table suggesting various strategies for differentiation based on content, process, and product is also on hand.

Module: Dual Language Learners with Disabilities: Supporting Young Children in the Classroom

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Online Resources

Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & McLaughlin, N. (2008). Dual language learners in the early years: Getting ready to succeed in school. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Retrieved on September 22, 2015, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED512635.pdf

This resource contains information designed to help bridge the achievement gap among young dual-language learners. Besides details of the study itself—and the young learners in question—the report outlines four pre-conditions the authors deem crucial to academic success. Notes on assessments and the interpretation of assessment results round out the effort.

Cate, D., Diefendorf, M., McCullough, K., Peters, M. L., & Whaley, K. (Eds.). (2010). Quality indicators of inclusive early childhood programs/practices: A compilation of selected resources. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute, National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved on November 13, 2015, from http://www.nectac.org/~pdfs/pubs/qualityindicatorsinclusion.pdf

In this article, the authors examine the quality indicators that should be present in effective early classroom learning environments. Information includes an overview of the DEC Recommended Practices, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, and a preschool environments checklist, among much else.

Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood
http://www.crtiec.org/

The online home of the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood offers links to a tiered RTI model, directions for further exploration, a research agenda and overview, and much more, including resources on ELL students.

Figueras-Daniel, A., & Steven Barnett, W. (2013). Preparing young Hispanic dual language learners for a knowledge economy. Preschool Policy Brief, 24. Retrieved on November 13, 2015, from http://www.nieer.org/sites/nieer/files/Dual%20Language%20Learners.pdf

In this piece, the authors stress the critical importance of preparing the growing population of Spanish-speaking dual-language learners for academic and, eventually, economic success. The article contains an overview of some of the characteristics if this population, as well as policy proposals and notes on teacher preparation and professional development.

Gonzalez-Barrera, A., & Lopez, M. H. (2013, August). Spanish is the most spoken non-English language in U.S. homes, even among non-Hispanics. Retrieved on November 13, 2015, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/08/13/spanish-is-the-most-spoken-non-english-language-in-u-s-homes-even-among-non-hispanics/

This brief online resource uses census data and the Pew Center’s own research to tabulate the number of Spanish speakers in U.S. homes. Links to the full number sets are available for those who wish to drill down further into the cross tabs.

Hamayan, E. V., Marler, B., Sanchez-Lopez, C., & Damico, J. S. (2007). Some myths regarding ELLs and special education. Retrieved on September 29, 2015, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/some-myths-regarding-ells-and-special-education

This online resource covers—and responds to—three common myths about English language learners in special education.

Kay-Raining Bird, E. (2013). Bilingualism in children with language and/or intellectual disabilities. Soleado, Fall issue. Retrieved on September 29, 2015, from http://www.dlenm.org/images/DLENM_soleado/2013.Fall.Soleado.pdf

This brief resource will be useful to anyone wishing for an overview of the current—as of 2013—research having to do with bilingualism in children with language delay or intellectual disabilities. A resources section serves as guide for those wishing to pursue more detailed treatments.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities. Retrieved on September 22, 2015, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010015/indicator2_8.asp

Information on IDEA Indicators 8.1 and 8.2—that is, those profiling the students served under the law—can be found here. Particular attention is paid to English-language learners and the responsibilities and obligations of the schools they attend.

Office of Head Start. (2009, 2014). Accommodating all children in the early childhood classroom. Retrieved on November 13, 2015, from http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/Disabilities/Program%20Planning/Accessibility/AccommodatingALL.htm

This brief but informative online resource outlines some of the ways that educators might go about accommodating classroom instruction for to suit the learning needs of all children, including dual language learners. Included are notes on environmental conditions, teaching strategies, and lesson formats, among more.

Office of Head Start. (2014). The importance of home language series. Retrieved on September 29, 2015, from http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/cultural-linguistic/home-language.html

These detailed online resources contain useful information for those working with students who are English learners. The downloadable PDF documents are organized by topic: “The Benefits of Being Bilingual,” “The Gift of Language,” “Language at Home and in the Community for Families,” and “Language at Home and in the Community for Teachers.”

Technical Assistance and Training System (TATS), & the Florida Inclusion Network (FIN). (2013). TATS and FIN talk with instructional staff about Universal Design for Learning in pre-k inclusive environments. Parts 1 and 2. Retrieved on November 13, 2015, from http://tats.ucf.edu/docs/TATS-FIN_UDL1.pdf and http://tats.ucf.edu/docs/TATS-FIN_UDL2.pdf

These helpful resources include brief overviews of the use of UDL in classroom environments for very young children. Notes include details on assessments, physical environments, and curriculum and instruction, among much more.

Technical Assistance and Training System (TATS). (n.d.). Administrators’ walkthrough checklist for prekindergarten classrooms: Level 3 examples of quality classroom settings. Retrieved on November 13, 2015, from http://tats.ucf.edu/new_walk_thru.cfm

Visitors to this online resource will find a long list of links to illustrated PDFs designed to help administrators to arrange and support effective pre-k classrooms. Included are documents on furniture arrangement, health and safety procedures, evidence of accommodation for diverse learners, and much, much more.

U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (2015). Schools’ civil rights obligations to English learner students and limited English proficient parents. Retrieved on September 18, 2015, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/ellresources.html

These resources from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights are designed to provide information to parents, students, and school officials regarding the federal requirements for schools with ELL students. Visitors will find a host of links to informative tools, as well related resources for further investigation.

U.S. Department of Education. (2015). English learner tool kit. Retrieved on December 15, 2015, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/english-learner-toolkit/index.html

This online resource is designed to help state and local education agencies to fulfill their legal obligations to English language learners in their classrooms. Included are links to information on staffing and supporting ELL programs, assessment and evaluation of those programs, and creating inclusive environments for all learners, among much else.

Module: Early Childhood Behavior Management: Developing and Teaching Rules

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Articles

Chai, Z., & Lieberman-Betz, R. (2016). Strategies for helping parents of young children address challenging behaviors in the home. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(4), 186–194.

The authors here stress the importance of teachers helping parents to carry good behavior management over to their students’ homes and offer a number of strategies to assist families in doing just that. Included are notes on working with linguistically and culturally diverse students, teaching families how to conduct a functional behavior assessment in the home, helping families to teach their young children replacement skills, among much more.

Sawyer, M. (2015). Bridges: Connecting with families to facilitate and enhance involvement. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(3), 172–179.

This article contains step-by-step details on how educators might more fully involve the families of their students in the learning environment. Included are tips of the week, notes on recruiting parents for greater participation, and information on the critical importance of communication between families and educators.

Sherman, C. K., & De La Paz, S. (2015). FIX: A strategic approach to writing and revision for students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(2), 93–101.

In this article, the authors offer details about the FIX approach to writing instruction. Included is information on this “metacognitive strategy,” as well as how that strategy can be combined with SRSD, sample essays, and notes on using FIX with English language learners.

Online Resources

CONNECT. (n.d.). Module 4: Family-professional partnerships. Online module. Retrieved on December 9, 2014, from http://community.fpg.unc.edu/connect-modules/learners/module-4

This resource from the Center to Mobilize Early Childhood Knowledge (CONNECT) includes information on “effective practices for developing trusting family-professional partnerships in early care and education programs.” Also on hand are activities, ready-made handouts, and videos and audios featuring both parents and teachers.

Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children (TACSEI). (2012). Positive behavior interventions and supports from preschool to high school: A conversation about implementation. Webinar recording and materials. Retrieved on December 5, 2014, from http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/explore/webinars/8.24.2012_webinar.htm?utm_source=TACSEI+%2526+CSEFEL+Updates&utm_campaign=405b765efd-TACSEI+and+CSEFEL+U

This Webinar hosted by the Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children (TACSEI) features experts discussing the implementation of PBIS in early childhood programs and K–12 classrooms. Taking part are Drs. Glen Dunlap, Lise Fox, and George Sugai.

Websites

Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL)
http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu

This Website of the Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is dedicated to “promoting the social emotional development and school readiness of young children birth to age 5.” Visitors here will find a host of resources, including training modules, training kits, and family tools, among much, much more.

Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children (TACSEI)
http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu

The online home of the Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children (TACSEI) contains a multitude of resources designed “to assist states in their efforts to improve systems and services related to children with disabilities.” On hand here is information about the Pyramid Model, links to teaching tools, and a PBIS Web tutorial.

Module: Early Childhood Environments: Designing Effective Classrooms

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Online Resources

Article

Campbell, P. H., & Milbourne, S. A. (2014). Together is better: Environmental teaching practices to support all children’s learning. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series No. 16, 21–38.

In this article, the authors overview the importance of making instructional decisions with regard to classroom environments. Readers will find notes on available resources, terminology, and classroom-wide environmental practices.

Commercial Products

Milbourne, S. A., & Campbell, P. H. (n.d.). CARA’s kit: Creating adaptations for routines and activities. Resource packet and book. Available from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).

Made available by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), this booklet and resource pack contains detailed information on creating adaptations to classroom environments. Included also is a mini-CD containing details related to curriculum and pre-K standards, adaptation notes, and a PowerPoint presentation designed to help users get more out of the kit.

Websites and Online Resources

Child Care Aware
http://www.childcareaware.org/child-care-providers/program-planning/indoor-and-outdoor-environment

Funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Child Care Aware offers information and resources on everything from facility design, to fire safety, to equipment installation on playgrounds.

Head Start Center for Inclusion
https://depts.washington.edu/hscenter/

Housed at the University of Washington and funded by Head Start, the Head Start Center for Inclusion offers resources for teachers, professional development providers, families, and students. Included here are modules, online videos, and a section on classroom visuals and supports, among much else.

Head Start: Early Head Start
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/ehsnrc/cde/learning-environments/learning.html

Come here for information and resources about the creation of nurturing learning environments, including tip sheets, Webisodes, and links to helpful news and helpful advice on environments both inside and out.

Head Start: Quality Teaching and Learning
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/practice/engage

Visitors to this corner of the Head Start Website will find a variety of information related to the creation of effective and engaging classroom environments. Included are interactive resources, as well as information on well-organized classrooms, social and emotional support for students, and instructional interactions, among much more. Of particular interest may be fifteen-minute-long professional development resources (http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/practice/iss-library.html) and an online resource about adaptive technology in the classroom (http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/Disabilities/Services%20to%20Children%20with%20Disabilities/Individualization/Promoting_young_children.pdf)

Module: Effective School Practices: Promoting Collaboration and Monitoring Students’ Academic Achievement

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Articles and Books

McLaughlin, M. J., & Nolet, V. (2004). What every principal needs to know about special education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. 

This work serves as a reference for principals who seek a more thorough understanding of federal legislation related to special education. Included also is information pertaining to curriculum design, the proper use of assessment data, and much more.
 

Thompson, S. J., Quenemoen, R. F., Thurlow, M. L., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2001). Alternate assessments for students with disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
and Council for Exceptional Children. 

This book outlines a multi-step plan or the creation and administration of alternate assessments for students with disabilities. Compilations of sources of legal and education-related information are included.

Web Resources

Institute of Education Sciences. (2009, September). Using student achievement data to support instructional decision making. Retrieved on July 30, 2010, from
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/dddm_pg_092909.pdf 

This IES Practice Guide tackles the topic of how to use data in the classroom to guide instructional decisions by creating a systematized framework to guide educators. Included in this valuable guide is a checklist for carrying out recommendations, as well as suggested approaches for carrying out the various recommendations.
 

Module: Evidence-Based Practices (Part 1): Identifying and Selecting a Practice or Program

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Articles

Cook, B. G., & Cook, S. C. (2011). Unraveling evidence-based practices in special education. The Journal of Special Education, 47(2), 71–82. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://sed.sagepub.com/content/47/2/71.full.pdf+html

Those looking for another overview of the basics of evidence-based practices will find one in this entry from The Journal of Special Education. Included here is a refresher on the relevant terminology, thoughts on defining and identifying EBPs, some caveats and warnings about EBPs, and much more.

Council for Exceptional Children. (2014). Council for exceptional children: Standards for evidence-based practices in special education. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(6), 206–212.

In this journal entry, the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) offers information on the center’s classification rubric for evaluating and classifying EBPs. Tables containing quality indicators and evidence-based classifications are included.

Kretlow, A. G., & Blatz, S. L. (2011). The ABC’s of evidence-based practice for teachers. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(5), 8–19.

This handy overview of the basics of EBPs contains information on how to access such practices and programs, how to ensure greater fidelity of implementation, and how to check on student progress, among much else.

Ryan, J. B., Hughes, E., Katsiyannis, A., McDaniel, M., & Sprinkle, C. (2014). Research-based educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(2), 94–102.

This article offers a basic overview of autism and its subtypes before offering information and brief analysis of various EBPs for students with ASD, including Applied Behavior Analysis, the Picture Exchange Communication System, and Social Stories, to name but a few.

Santangelo, T. E., Ruhaak, A. E., Kama, M. L. M, & Cook, B. G. (2013). Constructing effective instructional toolkits: A selective review of evidence-based practices for students with learning disabilities. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 26, 221–249.

One of the most-common difficulties associated with searching for EBPs is simply navigating the Websites that often house them, a situation this journal article (and book chapter) seeks to ameliorate. Here the authors examine a number of such sites, offering an overview and classification scheme for each.

Test, D. W., Kemp-Inman, A., Diegelmann, K., Hitt, S. B., & Bethune, L. (2015). Are online sources for identifying evidence-based practices trustworthy? An evaluation. Exceptional Children, 82(1), 58–80.

The IRIS Center appears as a “trustworthy source” in this article examining the effectiveness of online tools and resources for identifying evidence-based practices and programs. Here the authors overview their study methods and measures before profiling a wide number of online sources of information on EBPs. Suggestions for further investigation are also included.

Torres, C., Farley, C., & Cook, B. (2012). A special educator’s guide to successfully implementing evidence-based practices. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 45(1), 64–73.

This helpful entry offers a simple ten-step process for implementing EBPs in the classroom. Steps will offer educators assistance on searching for EBPs, identifying essential components, and monitoring the progress of students. A checklist is included.

Winton, P. J., Buysse, V., Rous, B., Lim, C., & Epstein, D. (2013). CONNECTING evidence-based practice and teacher research: Resources for early childhood faculty and instructors. Voices of Practitioners 8(2), 1–7.

This brief but informative resource overviews some of the ways in which teacher educators can help turn teachers into better consumers of evidence-based practices and programs via CONNECT’s five-step inquiry cycle. Included here is the cycle itself, adapted to the aforementioned use, as well as notes on additional instructor supports and suggestions for future improvements.

Book

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. (Eds.). (2014). Treatment integrity: A foundation for evidence-based practice in applied psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

This book-length examination of the importance of implementation fidelity includes chapters on how to measure and analyze treatment fidelity data, the use of performance feedback as a means by which to improve fidelity, and much more.

Websites

Evidence Based Intervention Network
http://ebi.missouri.edu

Headquartered at the University of Missouri, the Evidence Based Intervention Network offers an extensive section on evidence-based practices and programs, including helping tips on EBP selection, as well as resources for school RTI and problem-solving teams, ELL resources, and much more.

PRIME Implementation
http://www.primeimplementation.com/

Headquartered at the University of Connecticut Neag School of Education, PRIME Implementation is dedicated to creating resources and programs to help prevent lapses in fidelity of implementation in the classroom. Visitors here will find sections housing information on PRIME projects, resources, and a library for further investigation, among much else.

Module: Evidence-Based Practices (Part 2): Implementing a Practice or Program with Fidelity

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Articles

Carroll, C., Patterson, M., Wood, S., Booth, A., Rick, J., & Balain, S. (2007). A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity. Implementation Science, 2(40). Retrieved on November 26, 2014, from http://www.implementationscience.com/content/2/1/40

The authors out of this resource here overview a new model framework for improved implementation fidelity. Discussed are potential limitations and challenges presented by fidelity of implementation, the proposed framework itself, and some brief suggestions for further research and inquiry.

Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., Raab, M. (2013). An implementation science framework for conceptualizing and operationalizing fidelity in early childhood intervention studies. The Journal of Early Intervention, 35(2), 85-101. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://jei.sagepub.com/content/35/2/85.refs

This entry in The Journal of Early Intervention outlines a science framework for approaching decisions about fidelity of implementation in the classroom. Details from a study into the practice and its twin components—implementation and intervention—are also included, as are notes on fidelity measurements, terminology, and more.

Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: Implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18(2), 237–256.

Similar to the entry above, here the authors undertake an examination of studies of drug abuse prevention programs to determine the extent to which implementation fidelity is a core consideration. Findings indicate that the fidelity captured in twenty-five-years’ worth of studies was indeed quite low, something the authors attribute in part to the tension between implementation fidelity and the need for such programs to be adaptable.

Johnson, L. D., & McMaster, K. L. (2013). Adapting research-based practices with fidelity of implementation: Flexibility by design. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 26, 65–91.

This article—and later book chapter—opens with a detailed explanation of fidelity of implementation and its importance. It presents also an overview of a framework for adapting research into practice, as well as caveats and warnings regarding fidelity and some suggestions for areas of future research and examination.

Lane, K. L., Bocian, MacMillan, D. L., & Gresham (2004). Treatment integrity: An essential—but often forgotten—component of school-based interventions. Preventing School Failure, 48(3), 36–43.

Here the authors offer a brief overview of implementation fidelity while again stressing its importance as an indispensable ingredient in the success or failure of instructional practices and programs.

Leko, M. M. (2015). To adapt or not to adapt: Navigating an implementation conundrum. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(2), 80–85.
Here the authors look at the sometimes difficult balance between implementing evidence-based practices and programs with fidelity and knowing when adaptations to those EBPs are necessary. The article stresses the importance of using data to make such decisions, and includes steps for implementing adaptations, sample progress monitoring charts, and more.

Mowbray, C. T., Holter, M. C., Teague, G. B., & Bybee, D. (2003). Fidelity criteria: Development, measurement, and validation. American Journal of Evaluation, 24, 315-318.

It’s clear that implementation fidelity is important, but how exactly can educators gauge the extent to which it is being used in instructional practices and programs? In this journal entry, the authors set out a criteria for doing so. Includes notes on the various steps of the criteria, as well as suggestions for further refinement.

Protheroe, N. (2008). The impact of fidelity of implementation in effective standards-based instruction. Principal, 88(1), 38–41.

This brief overview offers a definition of fidelity of implementation, as well as remarks on its importance to good student outcomes,

Books

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. (Eds.). (2014). Treatment integrity: A foundation for evidence-based practice in applied psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This book-length examination of the importance of implementation fidelity includes chapters on how to measure and analyze treatment fidelity data, the use of performance feedback as a means by which to improve fidelity, ethical issues related to implementation fidelity, and much more.

Wallace, F., Blase, K., Fixsen, D., & Naoom, S. (2008). Implementing the findings of research: Bridging the gap between knowledge and practice. Alexandria, VA: Educational Research Service.

This book-length work attempts to make available to school leaders some of the most-recent research regarding the crucial importance of implementation fidelity in classroom instruction. Subjects treated in-depth include the stages of implementation and implementation drivers, as well as a helpful index for helping school leaders to locate evidence-based practices.

Online Resources

California Department of Education. (2007). What does Getting Results say about implementing programs with fidelity? Getting Results Fact Sheet. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/he/at/documents/grfactsheet10.pdf

What does
Getting Results say about fidelity of implementation? Peruse this online resource to find out. Users will find thoughts on factors that promote high fidelity (including training programs), methods for determining program fidelity, and more.

Fixsen, D. L., & Blase, K. A. (2009). Implementation: The missing link between research and practice. NIRN Implementation Brief #1. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, FPG, NIRN. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507422.pdf

In this entry, the authors stress the importance of implementation fidelity as a “missing link” between program or practice conception and its actual instructional effects in the classroom. The core components of implementation, as well as its various stages, are briefly overviewed.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Retrieved on November 24, 2014, from http://nirn.fpg.unc.edu/sites/nirn.fpg.unc.edu/files/resources/NIRN-MonographFull-01-2005.pdf

This expansive resource undertakes a detailed review of research into the importance of implementation fidelity on practice or program outcomes. Users will find notes on implementation within the context of community, core implementation components, and the authors’ conclusions and recommendations, among much, much more.

Witt, J. C., & Emeritus, P. (YEAR?). What do we know about accessing and improving fidelity of RTI. PowerPoint slides. Retrieved from http://www.serve.org/uploads/files/7WittPP.pdf

These PowerPoint slides include information on the importance of implementation fidelity to the success of RTI. Included are digestible notes on methods of assessment, research outcomes, and standards protocols and implementation, among much else.

Website

PRIME Implementation
http://www.primeimplementation.com/

Headquartered at the University of Connecticut Neag School of Education, PRIME Implementation is dedicated to creating resources and programs to help prevent lapses in fidelity of implementation in the classroom. Visitors here will find sections housing information on PRIME projects, resources, and a library for further investigation, among much else.

Module: Evidence-Based Practices (Part 3): Evaluating Learner Outcomes and Fidelity

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Articles

Kaminski, R. A., Abbott, M., Aguayo, K. B., Latimer, R., & Good, R. H. (2014). The preschool early literacy indicators: Validity and benchmark goals. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://tec.sagepub.com/content/34/2/71.full.pdf+html
 
In this journal entry, the authors reaffirm the essential nature of assessment to the success of response to intervention and introduce readers to the Preschool Early Literacy Indicators (PELI) method of monitoring student progress to ensure better outcomes. Their data suggest a robust relationship between student achievement and the application of PELI throughout early literacy instruction interventions.

Lane, K. L., Bocian, K. M., MacMillan, D. L., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Treatment integrity: An essential—but often forgotten—component of school-based interventions. Preventing School Failure, 48(3), 36–43.
 
Here the authors offer a brief overview of implementation fidelity while again stressing its importance as an indispensable ingredient in the success or failure of instructional practices and programs.

Moyle, M. J., Heilmann, J., & Berman, S. (2013). Assessment of Early Developing phonological awareness skills: A comparison of the preschool individual growth and development indicators and the phonological awareness and literacy screening–pre-k. Early Education and Development 24(5), 668–686. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://www4.uwm.edu/chs/faculty_staff/upload/3-1-3-Moyle-et-al.pdf
 
In this informative piece, the authors overview the importance of progress monitoring in early literacy instruction then proceed to compare two studies into such assessments, one using Preschool Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) and the other Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening–PreK (PALS-PreK). Findings indicate strengths for both assessment tools, depending on classroom and community circumstances.

Stecker, P. M., Lembke, E. S., & Foegen, A. (2008). Using progress-monitoring data to improve instructional decision making. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 48–58. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://www.scred.k12.mn.us/UserFiles
/Servers/Server_3022443/File/rtl%20center/training%20module
/Using_Progress_Monitoring_Data_to_Improve_Instructional_Decision_Making.pdf

 
In this article, the authors present an overview of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) as an effective tool for monitoring student progress in the classroom. A look at assessment practices past and present, as well as a number of detailed case studies, are also included.

Book

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. (Eds.). (2014). Treatment integrity: A foundation for evidence-based practice in applied psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
 
This book-length examination of the importance of implementation fidelity includes chapters on how to measure and analyze treatment fidelity data, the use of performance feedback as a means by which to improve fidelity, ethical issues related to implementation fidelity, and much more.

Online Resources

National Center on Response to Intervention (2013, January). Brief #1: Common progress monitoring omissions: Planning and practice. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://www.rti4success.org/sites/default/files/RTI%20ProgressMonitoringBrief1-Planning%20and%20Practice.pdf
 
This information brief from the National Center on Response to Intervention covers what may be some of the most commonly overlooked components of the progress monitoring process. Included here are notes on appropriate progress monitoring tools, the importance of a preset schedule for collecting progress monitoring data, and more.

National Center on Response to Intervention (2013, January). Brief #2: Common progress monitoring graph omissions: Missing goal and goal line. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://www.rti4success.org/sites/default/files/RTI%20ProgressMonitoringBrief2-Missing%20Goal%20and%20Goal%20Line.pdf
 
As with the resource above, this info brief from the National Center on Response to Intervention examines some of the overlooked components of progress monitoring. On hand is information about the importance of setting a goal line for student progress, end-of-year benchmarking, and more.

National Center on Response to Intervention (2013, January). Brief #3: Common progress monitoring graph omissions: Making instructional decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://www.rti4success.org/sites/default/files/RTI%20ProgressMonitoringBrief3-Making%20Instructional%20Decisions.pdf
 
The third in this series from the National Center on Response to Intervention, this info brief examines some of the overlooked components of progress monitoring. On hand is information about the importance of setting a trend line to gauge student performance, notes on evaluating student progress, and details on documenting instructional changes to classroom practices and programs.

National Center on Response to Intervention (2013, January). Brief #4: Common progress monitoring graph omissions: Reporting information to parents. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Retrieved on November 25, 2014, from http://www.rti4success.org/sites/default/files/RTI%20ProgressMonitoringBrief4-Reporting%20Information%20to%20Parents.pdf
 
This forth info brief from the National Center on Response to Intervention takes a look at some of the overlooked components of progress monitoring. In this installment, readers will find information about the importance of sharing information with the parents of students. Included are notes on the use of graphs to communicate data, some issues to consider when communicating with parents, and a case study example to illustrate the points.

Website

PRIME Implementation
http://www.primeimplementation.com/
 
Headquartered at the University of Connecticut Neag School of Education, PRIME Implementation is dedicated to creating resources and programs to help prevent lapses in fidelity of implementation in the classroom. Visitors here will find sections housing information on PRIME projects, resources, and a library for further investigation, among much else.

Module: Fidelity of Implementation: Selecting and Implementing Evidence-Based Practices and Programs

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Articles

American Psychological Association. (2005). Policy statement on evidence-based practice in psychology. Washington, D.C.: Author. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/practice/resources/evidence/index.aspx

Here the American Psychological Association outlines its structural philosophies on evidence-based practices, clinical expertise, and clinical implications.

Baker, S., Gersten, R., Dimino, J. A., & Griffiths, R. (2004). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 5–24.

In this article, the authors describe the results of a study into PALS implementation at the elementary school level. Their findings suggest that a number of factors—high levels of professional development and the overall flexibility of the PALS strategy, to name but two—figured into a substantial degree of implementation fidelity among instructors and a significant outcome improvement among students.

Center for American Progress, & Education Resource Strategies. (2009, April). Realigning resources for district transformation: Using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds to advance a strategic education reform agenda. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2009/04/education_recovery.html

In this report, the progressive think-tank assesses the current state of educational reform and suggests ways to deploy funds made available through the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for the purpose of wisely investing those monies to the betterment of student achievement.

Collier-Meek, M. A., Fallon, L. M., Sanetti, L. M. H., & Maggin, D. M. (2013). Focus on implementation: Assessing and promoting treatment fidelity. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 45(5), 52– 59.

This informative overview of treatment fidelity, “the link between evidence-based interventions and changes in student performance,” includes a comprehensive definition of the subject, as well as notes and thoughts on the development of effective systems and procedures, ways to review student-outcome data, and effective methods of providing performance feedback, among much else.

Century, J., & Rudnick, M. (n.d.). Addressing the challenges of measuring fidelity of implementation; or addressing the challenges of rigorously measuring and describing program use. PowerPoint presentation. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.cse.edc.org/dr-k12/Docs/Century_Presentation.ppt

These PowerPoint slides nicely detail the hows, whys, and whats of implementation fidelity. On hand are answers about observation protocols and the proper use of evaluative instruments.

Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Making wise investments to support positive outcomes for all students with exceptionalities. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.cec.sped.org/Content/NavigationMenu/PolicyAdvocacy/CECPolicyResources/EconomicStimulus/ARRA_Wise_Investments_6-12-09.doc

This publication of the Council for Exceptional Children offers suggestions for the effective and prudent use of funds released under the 2009 federal American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. A list of suggested investments forms the foundation of the resource.

Council for Exceptional Children. (2009, April). American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Questions and Answers: How the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Impacts Special Education and Early Intervention. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.cec.sped.org/Content/NavigationMenu/PolicyAdvocacy/CECPolicyResources/EconomicStimulus/ARRA_Q&A_Final_April_2009.pdf

The Council for Exceptional Children presents this handy Q&A, everything you ever wanted to know about the 2009 federal American Recovery and Reinvestment Act as it pertains to special and early education.

De Fazio, C. M., Fain, A. C., & Duchaine, E. L. (2011). Using treatment integrity in the classroom to bring research and practice together. Beyond Behavior, fall.

This short article outlines the basics of treatment integrity in the implementation of interventions. Besides a definition of the key terms, the authors here discuss the relationship between treatment integrity and classroom outcomes, as well as ways in which treatment integrity data can be collected and utilized. Sample treatment integrity forms are included as reference points.

Detrich, R. (n.d.). Treatment integrity: A fundamental component of PBS. PowerPoint presentation. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.apbs.org/Archives/Conferences/sixthconference/files/B6%20Detrich.pdf

These PowerPoint slides detail the relationship between treatment fidelity and positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). On hand is information about treatment fidelity as it relates to student behavior, the integrity of interventions at the universal level, and notes on how to increase treatment integrity.

Dude, M., Duchnowski, A., Clarke, S. (n.d.). Treatment integrity within applied research settings. PowerPoint presentation. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu/presentations.cfm

These PowerPoint slides take a look at the application of treatment integrity within applied research for students and their families. Included are notes on the benefits of treatment integrity, links between assessment and intervention, and possible barriers.

Gabriel, R. M. (2009, April). Common measures of implementation fidelity: SPF SIG cross-site workgroup. PowerPoint presentation at the briefing of the Western CAPT. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from https://www.spfsig.net/redirect.asp?doc_id=418

These PowerPoint slides detail numerous tips and notes for creating reliable measures for implementation fidelity. Included are notes on the nature of social marketing, overlapping strategies, and media advocacy.

Greenwood, C. R., Terry, b., Arreaga-Mayer, C., & Finney, R. (1992). The classwide peer tutoring program: Implementation factors moderating students’ achievement. Journal of Applied Behavior, 25, 101–116. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279659/

In this article, the authors outline the results of their research to assess how implementation in classwide peer tutoring programs affects student outcome. Their findings suggest that variation in implementation did indeed influence student response. A discussion of implications follows.

Griffith, A. K., Duppong Hurley, K., & Hagaman, J. L. (2009). Treatment integrity of literary interventions for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Remedial and Special Education, 30(4), 245–255.

This paper looks at some 44 studies published over three decades to examine the effect of treatment fidelity on the educations of children with emotional or behavioral disorders. The authors find that treatment integrity data were often not reported, and only reported at all in half of the studies. Ruminations on future research is included.

Guskey, T. R. (2002). Does it make a difference? Evaluating professional development. Educational Leadership, 59(6), 45–51. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar02/vol59/num06/Does-It-Make-a-Difference%C2%A2-Evaluating-Professional-Development.aspx

Thomas Guskey outlines in five steps a method for improving a school’s professional development program. A working definition of evaluation, as well as a look at the critical levels of professional development evaluation, are included.

Harvard Family Research Project. (2004). Promoting quality through professional development: A framework for evaluation. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/browse-our-publications/promoting- quality-through-professional-development-a-framework-for-evaluation

This publication of Harvard’s Issues and Opportunities in Out-of-School Time Evaluation project examines the impact of evaluative approaches to OST programs. On hand is an overview of professional development, an answer to the question “why evaluate professional development initiatives,” and a model evaluation framework.

Hirschstein, M. K., Edstrom, L. V., Frey, K. S., Snell, J. L., & McKenzie, E. P. (2007). Walking the talk in bully prevention: Teacher implementation variables related to initial impact of the Steps to Respect program. School Psychology Review, 36, 3–21.

Here the authors discuss the results of their research into the effects of teacher implementation on the effectiveness of an anti-bullying program. Their findings indicate that fidelity of implementation did indeed have a positive effect on outcomes across a range of program vectors. The study is detailed and further implications are treated.

Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement. (2007). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program. Retrieved on November 9, 2009, from http://www.fcrr.org/FCRRReports/guides/grrp.pdf

This tool enumerates in clearly outlined questions—and across categories—the characteristics that should be present in a comprehensive core reading program for grades K–6. Supplemental information for K–12 is included.

Jones, H. A., Clarke, A. T., & Power, T. J. (2008). Expanding the concept of intervention integrity: A multidimensional model of participation engagement. In Balance, 23, 4–5.

This article explores the current definition of what constitutes implementation fidelity and suggests the feasibility of an expansive, multifaceted approach to improving student outcomes.

Killion, J. (2005/ 2006). Evaluating the impact of professional development in eight steps. Evaluation Exchange, 11(4). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.hfrp.org/evaluation/the-evaluation-exchange/issue-archive/professional-development/evaluating-the-impact-of-professional-development-in-eight-steps

This eight-step outline for assessing the effect of professional development implementation can serve as an orderly and user-friendly guide for those engaged in the often-difficult and confounding process.

Kimpston, R. D. (1983, April). Curriculum fidelity and implementation tasks employed by teachers. Presentation made at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, Montreal, Canada.

This presentation highlights a study that attempts to delineate the gap between planned curriculums and those that are, in effect, delivered in classrooms. The results demonstrate that adaptation by teachers was common and that significant variance between what was prescribed by school districts and what was actually taught necessitated further study.

King, R., & Torgesen, J. K. (2006). “Improving the effectiveness of reading instruction in one elementary school: A description of the process.” In P. Blaunstein & R. Lyon (Eds.), It Doesn’t Have to be This Way. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc.

The chapter presented here takes a detailed look at a “whole school change project that took place over six years” at an elementary school in Florida. In it, the authors enumerate the school’s efforts to increase the reading outcomes of the students through implementation and monitoring of an evidence-based reading program.

Kreider, H., & Bouffard, S. (2005/ 2006). A conversation with Thomas R. Guskey. Evaluation Exchange, 11(4). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.hfrp.org/evaluation/the-evaluation-exchange/issue-archive/professional-development/a-conversation-with-thomas-r.-guskey

Dr. Thomas Guskey, a professor in the College of Education at the University of Kentucky and a lettered expert on the subject, talks about his method of professional development evaluation.

Kretlow, A. G., & Blatz, S. L. (2011). The ABCs of evidence-based practice for teachers. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(5), pp. 8–19.

This article lays out the case for the use of evidence-based practices and programs, especially in the special education classroom, where, the authors argue, they are most needed. Included here are thoughts on individual cases, as well as attempts to preemptively address questions that teachers might pose regarding evidence-based practices. A figure including some tips on how to navigate the What Works Clearinghouse Website is a useful addition.

Mitchem, K., Wells, D., & Wells, J. (2003). Using evaluation to ensure quality professional development in rural schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 18(2), 96–103.

Here the authors describe their proposal to increase the effectiveness of professional development practices in rural schools. The key, they believe, is an evaluative approach that helps to create a coherent program of professional development training.

Noell, G. H. (2008). “Research examining the relationship among consultation process, treatment integrity, and outcomes.” In W. P. Erchul & S. M. Sheridan (Eds.), Handbook of research in school consultation: Empirical foundations for the field (pp. 315–334). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

In this chapter, the author takes a look at how and to what extent treatment integrity affects student outcomes in mathematics. Findings indicate that teachers who completed a consultation on implementation fidelity saw in improvement in their students’ overall performance.

O’Donnell, C. L. (2008). Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring fidelity of implementation and its relationship to outcomes in k–12 curriculum intervention research. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 33–84. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://rer.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/78/1/33

This review suggests a paucity in available studies on evaluation methods for common interventions (particular those related to core curricula). To remedy this situation, this paper includes a clarification of the nature of curriculum intervention, as well as a look at evaluation criteria and fidelity measures.

Power, T. J., Blom-Hoffman, J., Clarke, A. T., Riley-Tillman, T. C., Kellerher, C., & Manz, P. (2005). Reconceptualizing intervention integrity: A partnership based framework of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review, 34, 87–106.

Here the authors examine the efficacy of a tri-part follow-up program for ensuring implementation fidelity. Findings suggest that fidelity of implementation must be frequently reassessed and, if necessary, corrected.

Showers, B., & Joyce, B. (1996, March). The evolution of peer coaching. Education Leadership, 53(6), 12–16. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.eggplant.org/pamphlets/pdf/joyce_showers_peer_coaching.pdf

This paper examines the results of a study on peer coaching and implementation fidelity. Included is an examination of the history of peer tutoring, as well as peer coaching principles and recommendations for training sessions.

Slavin, R. E. (2004). Built to last: Long-term maintenance of Success for All. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 61–66.

In this article, the author examines the success of the Success for All educational reform program. Despite a downbeat take on school reform writ large (“The story of educational innovation over the long run is a depressing one.”), he finds that Success for All has been implemented effectively—and over a long-term—by those school that have engaged in it. He ends with a hopeful note about the future of the program and the possibility of its expansion to more and more schools.

Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., & Moore, J. W. (2002). The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(1), 47–77.

This study examines the effects of the direct training of consultees on implementation fidelity. It supports a general conclusion that greater integrity yielded more positive learner outcomes. A number of specific cases are detailed and considered.

U.S. Department of Education. (2009, April). American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: IDEA recovery funds for services to children and youths with disabilities. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/leg/recovery/factsheet/idea.html

This publication of the U.S. government, Department of Education, outlines uses of funds made available under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for IDEA. Includes are notes on relevant fiscal issues and accountability principles.

U.S. Department of Education. (2009, April). American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Using ARRA funds to drive school reform and improvement. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://sde.state.ok.us/Finance/Recovery/pdf/Overview/ARRAGuidingQuestions.pdf

This publication of the U.S. government, Department of Education, outlines uses of funds made available under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the purpose of school reform and improvement. Includes are notes on framing questions for decision making, examples of fund dispersal, and tips on establishing data systems.

Websites

Applied Research on Science Materials Implementation: Bringing Measurement of Fidelity of Implementation (FOI) to Scale http://cemse.uchicago.edu/node/3

This project of the University of Chicago Center for Elementary Mathematics and Science Education seeks to assess the extent to which fidelity in elementary level math and science instruction is taking place in the nation’s schools. Find project briefs, technical reports, and papers and presentations among the offerings here.

The OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports http://www.pbis.org/

Funded by the Office of Special Education Programs, this center provides schools with capacity-building information and technical assistance in order to help them to identify, adapt, and sustain effective school-wide disciplinary practices.

State Implementation and Scaling up Evidence-based Practices (SISEP) Center http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~sisep/

This site, hosted by the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and funded in part by OSEP, acts as a resource to help states in their efforts to successfully implement and sustain the use of evidence-based practices in their schools. On hand is a host of resources, including notices about upcoming workshops, information briefs, and notes on Communities of Practice, among many, many others.

Module: Functional Behavioral Assessment: Identifying the Reasons for Problem Behavior and Developing a Behavior Plan

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Articles

Gage, N. A., & McDaniel, S. (2012). Creating smarter classrooms: Data-based decision making for effective classroom management. Beyond Behavior, 22(1), 48–55.

In this article, the authors stress the importance of adopting a data-based approach to accurately identify a behavior issue and to effectively address it with an appropriate response. A model framework and steps to achieving its implementation are included.

Katsiyannis, A., Conroy, M., & Zhang, D. (2008). District-level administrators’ perspectives on the implementation of Functional Behavior Assessment in schools.Behavioral Disorders, 34(1), 14–26.

In this survey, the authors examine the effects of Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) among students in Florida and South Carolina. They find that FBA appears to be most useful in cases involving chronic problem behavior. Less effective was the use of FBA in more extreme cases having to do with the use of weapons or controlled substances. Included are tables detailing the most effective FBA procedures by behavior type, as well as a discussion of the overall implications of the study.

Lane, K . L., MacMillan, D. L., Bocian, K. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Treatment integrity: An essential—but often forgotten—component of school-based interventions. Preventing School Failure, 45, 1–7.

Here, Lane, Bocian, and Gresham explicate and discuss the idea of treatment integrity in school-based interventions. Included is a practical definition of treatment fidelity, as well as a method of assessment and a consideration of several factors that influence treatment fidelity in the classroom.

Lane, K. L., Umbreit, J., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. (1999). A review of functional assessment research with students with or at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 1, 101–111.

This article serves as an overview on the use of functional assessment for students with or at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Topics include an emphasis on gauging social validity and maintaining treatment fidelity.

Lewis, T. J., Hatton, H. L., Jorgenson, C., & Maynard, D. (2017). What beginning special educators need to know about conducting functional behavioral assessments. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 231–238.

Student behavior issues remain a significant challenge for classroom teachers, being both a major source of job-related stress and an impediment to instruction. The authors of this article overview a number of effective evidence-based practices designed to address inappropriate behavior, including the use of FBAs, positive behavior support plans, and more.

Lewis, T., & Wehby, J., eds. (2007). Focus on FBA [Special issue]. Behavioral Disorders, 32(3).

This entire special issue of Behavioral Disorders is dedicated to various issues related to functional behavioral analysis. Articles include a look at “The Future of Functional Behavior Assessment in School Settings” and “A School-based Examination of the Efficacy of Function-Based Intervention,” among others.

Umbreit, J. (1995). Functional assessment and intervention in a regular classroom setting for the disruptive behavior of a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 20, 267–278.

Assessment and intervention of an eight-year old with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who displayed disruptive behaviors during academic instruction involved three phases: (1) a brief functional analysis; (2) a curriculum-based assessment; and (3) an intervention derived from the assessments. Results showed an immediate reduction in disruptive behavior and an increase in appropriate behavior.

Books

Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2008). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

This classic and highly engaging text includes evidence-based information on applied behavior analysis, behavior management, and functional behavioral assessment. The clear, concise writing style, coupled with humorous scenarios featuring the hard-working (if fictional) Professor Grundy, makes this a favorite with professors and students.

Crone, A. D., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: The Guilford Press.

This wide-ranging work is pitched at teachers, special educators, and any educational personnel engaged in working with students with behavior difficulties. Divided into three major sections, its chapters cover such essential topics as the changes in attitude required for effective implementation of behavior assessment in today’s schools, suggestions for how to build behavior support plans, and methods for developing and sustaining S-Teams, among many, many others.

Websites

The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice http://cecp.air.org/fba/

This federally funded center has developed a series of documents on FBA: Part 1–An IEP Team’s Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans; Part II-Conducting a Functional Behavioral Assessment; and Part III-Creating Positive Behavioral Intervention plans and Supports.

The OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports http://www.pbis.org/

Funded by the Office of Special Education Programs, this center provides schools with capacity-building information and technical assistance in order to help them to identify, adapt, and sustain effective school-wide disciplinary practices.

Module: Guiding the School Counselor: An Overview of Roles and Responsibilities

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Articles

Gysbers, N. (2003). Comprehensive guidance and counseling programs: The evolution of accountability. Professional School Counseling, 8, 1–14. 

Focusing on the theme of accountability throughout the twentieth century and at present, the article explores ways in which school counselors can demonstrate their accountability and contribution to student achievement. The article features empirical data, lists of prerequisites to achieve accountability, and also speculations on the future of the accountability issue in regard to school counselors.
 

Milsom, A. (2002). Students with disabilities: School counselor involvement and preparation. Professional School Counseling, 5(5), 331–338. 

The article discusses results from a study seeking to closely define school counselors’ roles in relation to students with disabilities by directly interviewing a random 400 members of the American School Counseling Association (ASCA). The study also posed questions about the involvement of special education topics in school counseling education programs, and conclusions from these questions are provided in the discussion section of the article.
 

Milsom, A., & Akos, P. (2003). Preparing school counselors to work with students with disabilities. Counselor Education & Supervision, 43, 86–95. 

To determine the level at which disability content is being incorporated into school counselor education programs, this study surveyed 137 participant programs from 42 states. The study discusses both the encouraging and challenging implications of its findings for school counselors’ preparedness to work with students with disabilities.
 

Parsad, B., Alexander, D., Farris, E., & Hudson, L. (2003). High School Guidance Counseling, NCES 2003-015. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 

A look at school counseling in U.S. high schools in the 2001-2002 academic year, the report examines staff characteristics, programs, and activities involving school counselors and eleventh and twelfth graders. In addition, the report provides a comprehensive perspective for readers with its comparison of the new data collected to results from the 1984 supplement to the High School and Beyond Longitudinal survey data.

Books

American School Counselor Association (2003). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs. (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association. 

School counselors can find information in this book on how to develop, organize, implement, and revise counseling programs at their schools. The book discusses counselors’ roles and their impact on students, including those with disabilities. Perspectives on other topics, such as leadership, advocacy, and systemic change are also provided. Second editions of this book come with CD-ROMs.
 

Baumberger, J. P., & Harper, R. E. (1999). Assisting students with disabilities: What school counselors can and must do. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 

This reference handbook features a description of TREAT, a comprehensive assessment model designed to help school counselors working with students with disabilities on an individual basis. The book provides a case study (in some cases more than one) for each chapter, and it explains how counselors and school leaders can create counseling programs that meet federal requirements and student needs.

Online Resources

American School Counselor Association http://www.schoolcounselor.org 

The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) focuses on providing professional development to school counselors, enhancing school counseling programs, and researching effective school counseling practices. The Website provides sections for School Counselors & Members, Administrators, Parents & Public, and the Press. Under the School Counselors & Members portion, for instance, visitors can click on Member Info, Legislative Affairs, Publications, Career/Roles, ASCA National Model, Resource Center, Legal/Ethical, and Awards categories. Worth noting, the Website provides links to state associations under the School Counselors & Members section athttp://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?pl=325&sl=127&contentid=179. Visitors can also read about appropriate and inappropriate roles for school counselors by linking to http://www.schoolcounselor.org/files/appropriate.pdf. The larger Website also features Advertise/Exhibit information, ASCA News, and the Online Bookstore.
 

American Counseling Association http://www.counseling.org 

This Website features information for the counseling profession and those it serves. Publications, guides, licensure charts, tips, and resources for professional development are just some of the sections visitors can explore on the site. Information for counseling students, such as a list of graduate programs, is posted, and there is a section with an active career center, as well. Public policy updates are available to provide news and background resources to counselors and others interested in the field.

Module: High-Quality Mathematics Instruction: What Teachers Should Know

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Articles and Books

Agodini, R., Harris, B., Atkins-Burnett, S., Heaviside, S., Novak, T., & Murphy, R. (2009). Achievement effects of four early elementary school math curricula: Findings from first graders in 39 schools (NCEE 2009-4052). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

This wide-scale national study, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, sets out to determine why some elementary school math curricula appear to be more effective than others. A close examination of teacher preparedness and student achievement across cohorts and program types follows, as does a detailed breakdown of the project’s findings and their significance.

Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2010). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. Retrieved on October 27, 2010, from http://www.nctm.org/news/content.aspx?id=12698

This brief-but-informative look at the use of manipulatives in the mathematics education includes an overview of the relevant research into the positive effects of their use, as well as a consideration of the place of manipulatives in the instruction-intervention spectrum.

Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Vaughn, S., Pfannenstiel, K. H., Porterfield, J., & Gersten, R. (2011). Early numeracy intervention program for first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 7–23. Retrieved on February 14, 2012, from http://cec.metapress.com/content/e17464w122537374/fulltext.pdf

In this article, the authors lay out the results of a study into the efficacy of a mathematics intervention program designed to address numeracy issues among very young students. To do so, the researchers made use of a number of high-quality instructional techniques, including continual progress monitoring to gauge the effectiveness of their efforts. Finds suggest some improvement among students in the intervention group, though problem-solving remained the same for both the intervention group and the non-intervention group.

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (n.d.). Standards-setting considerations. Retrieved on April 28, 2011, from http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Considerations.pdf

These notes from a CCSSI development workshop offer an overview of a number of insights into and important considerations in the creation and utility of state math standards. Among these are the importance of clarity, international benchmarks, and assessment, among many others.

Common Core State Standards Validation Committee. (2010, June). Reaching higher: A report from the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & the Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved on April 28, 2010, from http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CommonCoreReport_6.10.pdf

T
his report overviews the efforts of the CCSSI and its efforts to reform English language instructional standards across the United States in a way heretofore never attempted. Taking part in the effort were representatives of forty-eight states and Washington, DC, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

ETA Cuisenaire. (n.d.). Manipulatives use and understanding in mathematics. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from http://www.etacuisenaire.com/pdf/research/Manipulatives
%20Use%20and%20Understanding%20in%20Mathematics.pdf


This piece presents a detailed look at the use and effectiveness of manipulatives in mathematics instruction, including a history of their development and early implementation, a look at the research in support of their use, and a consideration of their place in the context of state and national curriculum standards.

Faulkner, V. N. (2009). The components of number sense an instructional model for teachers. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(5), 24–30. One proposed method for increasing students’ mathematics skills is to improve their “number sense”—that is, a more significant understanding of the fundamentals of mathematics.

This article argues that, however crucial, this number sense has never been adequately defined for teachers, and sets out to do so by providing “an instructional model designed to support teachers’ efforts to improve their mathematics instruction

Gagnon, J., & Maccini, P. (2006, December 14). Direct instruction in middle school mathematics for students with learning disabilities. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/directinstructionmath.asp

Addressing the issue of providing middle-school students with high-quality math instruction, the authors of this article lay out the fundamentals of direct instruction through an in-depth description of the principle, as well as an extended example set.

Hartshorn, R., & Boren, S. . (1990, June). Experiential learning of mathematics: using manipulatives. ERIC Digest. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9217/math.htm

This look at the use of manipulatives as effective teaching tools in mathematics instruction includes a short history of their use as pedagogic devices, suggestions for their implementation in grades K–12, and a look at various state initiatives, among other topics.

Jayanthi, M., Gersten, R. & Baker, S. (2008). Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities or difficulty learning mathematics. Portsmith, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved on November 10, 2011, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/
mathematics-instruction-for-students-with-learning-disabilities-or-difficulty-learning-mathematics-a-guide-for-teachers


This in-depth report examines and describes seven effective methods for teaching mathematics to students with disabilities. Following are seven recommendations—”Provide ongoing formative assessment data and feedback to teachers,” “Teach students to solve problems using multiple/heuristic strategies,” and “Teach students to visually represent the information in the math problem,” for example—and a summary of the evidence in support of each of them.

Jitendra, A. K., Nelson, G., Pulles, S. M., Kiss, A. J., & Houseworth, J. (2016). Is mathematics representation of problems an evidence-based strategy for students with mathematics difficulties? Exceptional Children, 83(1), 8–25.

Here the authors set out to answer the question posed by their article’s title, and they do so in the affirmative. Included here are notes on the presentation of mathematics problems as a strategy and a discussion of the finding that such a presentation does indeed qualify as an evidence-based practice.

Ketterlin-Gellar, L. R., Chard, D. J., & Fien, H. (2008). Making connections in mathematics: conceptual mathematics intervention for low-performing students. Remedial and Special Education, 29(1), 33–45.

The authors of this piece take a look at the effectiveness of a pair interventions on the math outcomes among a group of students who struggle with arithmetic. Findings suggest that students in the groups receiving the interventions fared better than those in the group that did not. A discussion of the implications of the study is included.

McNeil, N. M., & Jarvin, L. J. (2007, October). When theories don’t add up: Disentangling the manipulatives debate. Theory into Practice, 46(4), 309–316.

In this piece, the authors take a look at the arguments for the use of manipulatives in classroom instruction, including that manipulatives create “an additional channel for conveying information,” and in turn present several arguments against those in favor of their implementation.

Parmar, R. S., & Cawley, J. F. (1997). Preparing teachers to teach mathematics to students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(2), 188–197.

This article takes a look at the extent to which our current teacher preparation programs take into account the NCTM Standards and the Knowledge and Skills Competencies list, particularly as pertains to teachers who will instruct students with learning exceptionalities.

Powell, S. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2013). Reaching the mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in mathematics for students with mathematics difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 28(1), 38–48.

In this article, the authors detail a number of possible concerns related to teaching students with mathematics difficulties using the current Common Core Standards. They set out a rationale and process for instruction that utilizes a modified version better suited to students who struggle with the subject. On hand here also are notes on evidence-based interventions and possible direction for future inquiry and instruction.

Sherin, M. G. (2002). A balancing act: Developing a discourse community in a mathematics classroom. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 5, 205–233.

Can a student-centered approach to mathematics instruction be effective? That’s the questions asked by the author of this piece. The outcome of a study to answer that question suggests that, though student-centered instruction has certain real benefits, a “filtered approach,” whereby the teacher carefully sifts through and guides that information, is perhaps preferable to a less-guided approach.

Stein, M. K., Smith, M. S., Henningsen, M. A., & Silver, E. A. (2000). Implementing standards-based mathematics instruction. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

This book-length work is a treatment in great detail of the creation, implementation, and sustenance of an effective standards-based mathematics instruction for students of various ability and grade levels.

Tucker, B. F., Singleton, A. H., & Weaver, T. L. (2006). Teaching mathematics to all children. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book attempts to create a whole-cloth approach to mathematics instruction that is effective among learners of all ability levels. Examples drawn from the authors’ personal experience are numerous, as is research data to support the methods proposed within.

Wall, E. S., & Posamentier, A. S. (2007). What successful math teachers do, grades prek-5. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

This book-length work details a number of research-based teaching strategies for mathematics instruction, and includes guidelines on how each aligns with the NCTM Standards.

Wilson, G. L. (2013). The math frame: Reaching mathematical common core heights for students who struggle. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(1), 36–46.

In this article, the authors examine the ways in which the Common Core Standards can be employed to improve the mathematics performance of students with disabilities. On hand here are thoughts on the challenges presented by word problems, as well as a step-by-step “math frame” (with detailed examples) for helping students to engage and solve them.

Web Resources

The Access Center. (2004, September). Direct/ explicit instruction and mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/DirectExplicitInstruction_Mathematics.asp

This resource comprises a concise description of the most-usual steps involved in direct instruction, and an explanation of how those steps might be applied to the teaching of mathematics, including a sample of the method in a specific case.

The Access Center. (n.d.). Using peer tutoring for math. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/mathpeertutoring.asp

What is peer tutoring? What does it look like for math? How is it implemented? This Web page from the Access Center provides answers to these questions and more, including detailed examples for further information.

The Access Center. (n.d.) What is the concrete-representational-abstract instructional approach? (n.d.). Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/CRA_Instructional_Approach.asp

This resource from the Access Center details CRA—”an intervention for mathematics instruction that research suggests can enhance the mathematics performance of students with learning disabilities. It is a three-part instructional strategy, with each part building on the previous instruction to promote student learning and retention and to address conceptual knowledge”—and offers a number of useful examples of its implementation in action.

Dragoo, K. (2013, January). NICHCY structured abstract no. 84: Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of instructional components. Retrieved on January 28, 2013, from http://nichcy.org/research/summaries/abstract84

This structured abstract of an article that appeared in the Review of Educational Research offers an accessible breakdown of the authors’ research into mathematics instructional components for students with exceptional learning needs. The summation includes the categories of interventions as employed by the study’s authors, as well as a brief overview of the statistical effect of the intervention, the research findings, and recommendations for future research.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2010). Discourse. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from http://www.nctm.org/resources/content.aspx?menu_id=598&id=7634

This page at the NCTM Website examines discourse—the “written and oral ways of representing, thinking, communicating, agreeing, and disagreeing that teachers and students use to engage in…tasks”—and breaks it down into detailed components, with links to more in-depth definitions and video examples of its implementation and use.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2010). Tips on supporting all students: Equity and diversity. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from http://www.nctm.org/resources/content.aspx?id=15863

This brief outline of the topic is a bullet list suggesting that “the goal [of supporting all students] is to provide a starting point for considering equity and supporting diversity within our classrooms. The following headings are very broad reminders of how we can continue our efforts to achieve the goal of a mathematics education experience that is equitable and celebrates diversity.”

http://www.interventioncentral.org

The Website of Intervention Central is a useful stop for those seeking resources and guidance on matters pertaining to RTI and student interventions, including mathematics instruction for students who require extra supports.

http://www.rti4success.org

The official Website of the National Center on Response to Intervention (RTI) features a veritable library of information and resources about the effectiveness of RTI on mathematics instruction among students of all ability levels.

Module: How People Learn: Presenting the Learning Theory and Inquiry Cycle on Which the IRIS Modules Are Built

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Articles

Bottge, B. A., Rueda, E., Serlin, R. C., Hung, Y., & Kwon, J. M. (2007). Shrinking achievement differences with anchored math problems: Challenges and possibilities. The Journal of Special Education, 41(1), 31–49.

This article details the results of a study to test the efficacy of the
Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) method on the math achievement of a group of students that included a cohort with disabilities. The research determined that all students improved, with students with disabilities doing so on an equivalent (if lower-scoring) trajectory. Some notes and recommendations for the future course of such research are offered.

Cordray, D. S., Pion, G. M., Harris, A., & Norris, P. (2003). The value of the VaNTH Engineering Research Center: Assessing and evaluating the effects of educational innovations on large educational research projects in engineering. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 22, 47–54.

This article describes the application of the principles of
HPL to coursework in engineering. It discusses the ongoing process of incorporating HPL into instruction and describes preliminary findings of the learning outcomes of this ambitious project.

PT3 Group at Vanderbilt. (2003). Three Amigos: Using anchored modular inquiry to help prepare future teachers. Educational Technology: Research and Development, 51(1), 105–123.

This article offers descriptions of the process of incorporating the principles of HPL into several college courses are provided. Both students’ and instructors’ feedback on the process are included.

Schwartz, D. L., Lin, X., Brophy, S., & Bransford, J. D. (1999b). Toward the development of flexibly adaptive instructional designs. In C. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: New Paradigms of Instructional Theory, Vol. II (pp. 183–213). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

This chapter describes the development of the
STAR Legacy cycle and its application in several elementary school classrooms.

Books

National Research Council (1999). How people learn: bridging research and practice. Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. M. S. Donovan, J. D. Bransford, & J. W. Pellegrino (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

This book summarizes the feedback received by the editors about the first edition of the
How People Learn book as well as their response to this feedback.

Online Resources

Online version of the How People Learn book http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309070368

This Website provides an online version of the NRC
How People Learn book that was used as a primary resource for this module. Access is free to all users.

The VaNTH Website http://web.mit.edu/vanth/www/index.shtml This Website describes the ongoing development of the VaNTH project.

The research project’s purpose is to help instructors in the engineering departments at Vanderbilt, Northwestern, MIT, and Harvard incorporate the principles of HPL into their individual courses and to use HPL to structure their overall programs of study in engineering.

Module: Improving Writing Performance: A Strategy for Writing Persuasive Essays

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Articles

De La Paz, S. (1999). Self-regulated strategy instruction in regular education settings: Improving outcomes for students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12(2), 92–106.

Detailing the results of a study examining the effectiveness of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) for improving middle-school students’ writing abilities, the article notes that students with disabilities and students who were low-, average-, and high-achievers all improved their writing using the instructional procedures.

Graham, S., MacArthur, C., & Fitzgerald, J. (2007). Best practices in writing instruction. NY: Guilford.

Confronting the challenge of improving students’ writing performance often requires a multi-faceted approach, and that’s just what’s offered in this valuable resource. Instructors will find notes on writing strategies, including how to most effectively work with students with disabilities. Thoughts on school-wide writing programs are also featured, as are nuts-and-bolts sections on the planning and revision processes, among much else.

Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1999, Fall). Programmatic intervention research: Illustrations from the evolution of self-regulated strategy development. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22, 251–261.

The authors of this article describe the evolution of programmatic research in learning disabilities. As such, they detail four strands of writing research before addressing their work with Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD). The article examines a few specific studies while also reviewing questions for the field in general.

Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Aitken, A. A., Barkel, A., Houston, J., & Ray, A. (2017). Teaching spelling, writing, and reading for writing: Powerful evidence-based practices. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 262–272.

Writing instruction for students with disabilities presents a number of challenges that must be approached thoughtfully and strategically. In this article, the authors overview a number of effective practices designed to improve students’ writing, reading, and spelling skills, including explicit spelling instruction and spelling games, as well as SRSD for reading and writing.

Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

This collection represents a wealth of information for any instructor searching for research-based writing strategies to use in his or her classroom. On hand are step-by-step guides to the POW and SRSD methods, as well as notes on story writing, word selection, peer-assisted learning, and many other topics. An emphasis on scaffolding skills up will help teachers to start their classes off on the right foot.

Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (2003, Spring). Can students with LD become competent writers? Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 129–141.

This article addresses the difficulties general education teachers face as they try to provide adequate writing instruction for students with learning disabilities. Specifically, the article explores the Learning Strategies Curriculum and its various instructional programs on writing strategies that have been developed by researchers associated with the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. The article concludes that complex writing strategies are available that can sufficiently support students with disabilities in becoming successful performers in the general education classroom.

Sherman, C. K., & De La Paz, S. (2015). FIX: A strategic approach to writing and revision for students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(2), 93–101.

In this article, the authors offer details about the FIX approach to writing instruction. Included is information on this “metacognitive strategy,” as well as how that strategy can be combined with SRSD, sample essays, and notes on using FIX with English language learners.

Straub, C., & Alias, A. (2013). Next generation writing at the secondary level for students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(1), 16–24.

This examination of the emphasis on the Common Core Standards focuses its attention on how those standards can be implemented so as to improve the writing performance of secondary students with disabilities. The authors overview strategic behaviors for students with LD, the implementation of specific writing tasks as a means of improving writing ability, and the use of SRSD to teach persuasive essay writing, among much else.

Books

Levy, M., & Ransdell, S. (Eds.). (1996). The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences, and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

This collection of 19 articles examining the cognitive and psychological aspects of writing as well as strategic and rhetorical facets is divided into three categories. Readers can search for information in the sections Theories of Writing and Frameworks for Writing Research, Analytic Tools and Techniques, and Individual Differences and Applications.

Smagorinsky, P. (Ed.) (2006). Research on composition: Multiple perspectives on two decades of change. New York: Teachers College Press.

The book is the third in a series whose earlier volumes first came out in 1963 and 1986. Taking on the period from 1984 to 2003, the book covers a range of topics including teacher research, second-language writing, rhetoric, home and community literacy, workplace literacy, and histories of writing, according to the publisher. The chapters, written by experts in the field, address traditional forms of writing instruction as well as emerging software and strategies involving technology.

Online Resources

National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum Text Transformations Web page https://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_textrans.html

The Website surveys a variety of test transformation options available for students struggling with printed texts, for instance for students with visual disabilities. Just as these students may need modifications or assistance from technological tools in order to read printed text, the same may be true for their ability to write text, as well. This site describes different types of text transformations (such as Text-to-Speech, Video Instruction, Word Prediction, and Speech Recognition), provides evidence for effectiveness, and also lists a variety of links and references on related topics.

Project Write http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/projectwrite/

This Website houses materials and resources (including lesson plans) to supplement the use of the Self-Regulated Strategies Development (SRSD) approach for early elementary students. Included is an overview of SRSD (with a detailed explanation of the strategy’s various stages), as well as links to information and materials that teachers can use to enhance the lessons found herein.

Reading Rockets Questions About Writing Instruction Web page http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3478

The page answers two of teachers’ frequently asked questions about writing instruction: How can I support my students’ writing? and What do I do with struggling writers? The first question is addressed in terms of grade level, with the site providing specific insights on students in pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, and first grade. The answer to the second question offers four solutions, including encouraging listening and responding during group reading, scheduling time for students to talk about their writing, teaching strategies in small groups, and celebrating writing accomplishments.

Module: Instructional Accommodations: Making the Learning Environment Accessible to Students with Visual Disabilities

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Article

Cox, P. R., & Dykes, M. K. (2001). Effective classroom adaptations for students with visual impairments. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33, 68–74.

This article provides two useful checklists: 1) Checklist for Outdoor and Indoor Orientation and Mobility Adaptations and 2) Checklist for Classroom Strategies and Adaptations. In addition, the article provides brief sections on types of visual impairments, orientation and mobility skills, incidental learning, working with vision specialists to adapt learning environments, both visual and auditory forms of learning and accommodations, and tactile learning. The article also considers technological adaptations and curriculum issues.

Books

Levack, N. (1994). Low vision: A resource guide with adaptations for students with visual impairments (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

The book provides information about how to assess and thus augment students’ visual abilities. Sections of the book include “Diagnosing, assessing, and evaluating;” “Medical information;” and “Strategies for teaching and adaptation.”

Loumiet, R., & Levack, N. (1993). Independent living: A curriculum with adaptations for students with visual impairments – Volume I: Social competence (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Featuring three volumes of curriculum that may be applied to young or adult students, the book focuses on methods of assessing, teaching, and evaluating independent living skills. Such things as professional and student resources, lesson plan examples, and evaluation forms can be found throughout the text.

Video

Sacks, S. Z., & Wolffe, K. E. (Eds.). (2000). Focused on: Social skills. [Videotape series and print material]. New York: AFB Press.

This series of five videos and accompanying print materials is designed to help children with visual disabilities learn social skills. The study guides that come with the videos offer texts for students, as well as instructional materials and assignments that teachers may find useful.

Module: Intensive Intervention (Part 1): Using Data-Based Individualization To Intensify Instruction

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Articles

Coyne, M. D., & Koriakin, T. A. (2017). What do beginning special educators need to know about intensive reading interventions? TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 239–248.

Here the authors stress both the crucial importance of elementary reading instruction to student success, as well as the special challenge posed by students with disabilities, for whom reading is a primary area of difficulty. In response, the authors promote a pair of effective practices, explicit decoding instruction and explicit vocabulary instruction. A list of reliable resources for further exploration is also included.

McInerney, M., Zumeta, R. O., Gandhi, A. G., & Gersten, R. (2014). Building and sustaining complex systems: Addressing common challenges to implementing intensive interventions. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(4), 54–63.

This informative article sees its authors overviewing some of the challenges facing schools as they begin to implement systems of intensive interventions. The article includes a number of step-by-step strategies for doing so, as well as specific examples drawn from actual schools and educators in the field.

Online Resources

Murray, C. S., Coleman, M. A., Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., & Roberts, G. (2012). Designing and delivering intensive interventions: A teacher’s toolkit. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved on October 6, 2015, from http://www.meadowscenter.org/files/resources/Designing__Delivering_Intensive_Interventions_Toolkit.pdf

This online toolkit, developed by the Center on Instruction, is designed to provide “activities and resources to assist practitioners in designing and delivering intensive interventions in reading and mathematics for K–12 students with significant learning difficulties and disabilities.” Users will find sample lessons, as well as lesson reflection templates and an extensive resource guide, among much else.

Websites

Florida Center for Reading Research
http://www.fcrr.org

The Florida Center for Reading Research is focused on conducting reading research, disseminating research-based practices, and providing technical assistance to Florida’s schools and its State Department of Education. The Website features sections for teachers, coaches, administrators, parents, researchers, and FCRR faculty and staff, among much else.

The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk
http://www.meadowscenter.org

The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk (MCPER) is dedicated to generating, disseminating, and supporting the implementation of empirically validated practices to influence educators, researchers, policymakers, families, and other stakeholders who strive to improve academic, behavioral, and social outcomes for all learners.

National Center on Intensive Intervention
http://www.intensiveintervention.org

The National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) seeks to build state and district capacity to support educators in using data-based individualization to effectively implement intensive intervention in reading, mathematics, and behavior in Grades K–12.

Additional IRIS Resources

RTI (Part 1): An Overview
This module outlines the differences between the IQ-achievement discrepancy model and the Response-to-Intervention (RTI) approach. It also offers a brief overview of each tier in the RTI model and explains its benefits.

Evidence-Based Practices (Part 1): Identifying and Selecting a Practice or Program
This module, the first in a series of three, discusses the importance of identifying and selecting evidence-based practices.

Evidence-Based Practices (Part 2): Implementing a Practice or Program with Fidelity
This module addresses how to implement an evidence-based practice with fidelity.

Evidence-Based Practices (Part 3): Evaluating Learner Outcomes and Fidelity
This module examines how to evaluate whether an evidence-based practice is effective for the young children or students with whom you are working.

Study Skills Strategies (Part 1): Foundations for Effectively Teaching Study Skills
This module examines the importance of effective study skills strategies and includes information on why some students struggle with those skills and why it’s critical for teachers to explicitly teach such strategies.

Study Skills Strategies (Part 2): Strategies that Improve Students’ Academic Performance
This companion to the Study Skills (Part 1) module reiterates the importance of teachers providing explicit instruction on the use of study skills strategies and overviews a number of effective strategies: graphic organizers, note-taking, mnemonics, organizing materials, time management, comprehension strategies, and self-regulation strategies.

SOS: Helping Students Become Independent Learners
This module describes how teachers can help students stay on task by learning to regulate their behavior. The four strategies discussed are self-monitoring, self-instruction, goal-setting, and self-reinforcement.

Module: Intensive Intervention (Part 2): Collecting and Analyzing Data for Data-Based Individualization

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Kern, L., & Wehby, J. H. (2014). Using data to intensify behavioral interventions for individual students. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(4), 45–53.

In this article, the authors provide information on the various tiers of intervention in the hypothetical case of Isaac, a twelve-year-old with a history of behavior issues in the classroom. Included also are details on self-monitoring, behavior assessments, family support, and classroom behavior expectations, among much more.

McInerney, M., Zumeta, R. O., Gandhi, A. G., & Gersten, R. (2014). Building and sustaining complex systems: Addressing common challenges to implementing intensive interventions. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(4), 54–63.

This informative article sees its authors overviewing some of the challenges facing schools as they begin to implement systems of intensive interventions. The article includes a number of step-by-step strategies for doing so, as well as specific examples drawn from actual schools and educators in the field.

Wehby, J. H., & Kern, L. (2014). Intensive behavior intervention: What is it, what is its evidence base, and why do we need to implement now? TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(4), 38–44.

Here the authors reflect on the critical importance of implementing intensive interventions among students with significant behavioral difficulties in the classroom. Included are details on the tiers of intervention with an emphasis on adapting those interventions to better suit individual students, as well as notes on the benefits of evidence-based practices and wrap-around supports.

Online Resources

Murray, C. S., Coleman, M. A., Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., & Roberts, G. (2012). Designing and delivering intensive interventions: A teacher’s toolkit. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved on October 6, 2015, from http://www.meadowscenter.org/files/resources/Designing__Delivering_Intensive_Interventions_Toolkit.pdf

This online toolkit, developed by the Center on Instruction, is designed to provide “activities and resources to assist practitioners in designing and delivering intensive interventions in reading and mathematics for K–12 students with significant learning difficulties and disabilities.” Users will find sample lessons, as well as lesson reflection templates and an extensive resource guide, among much else.

National Center on Intensive Intervention. (2013). Using FBA for diagnostic assessment in behavior. Retrieved on November 11, 2015, from http://www.intensiveintervention.org/resource/using-fba-diagnostic-assessment-behavior-dbi-training-series-module-6

This online training module from the National Center on Intensive Intervention on the use of functional behavior analysis also offers a wealth of resources and information in the form of self-assessment worksheets, information on common behavior problems, PowerPoint slides, a coaching guide, and much more.

National Center on Intensive Intervention. (2014). Informal academic diagnostic assessment: Using data to guide instruction: Part 4: Identifying target skills in reading and math. Retrieved on November 11, 2015, from http://www.intensiveintervention.org/resource/informal-academic-diagnostic-assessment-using-data-guide-instruction-part-4-identifying

This online training module from the National Center on Intensive Intervention covers the identification of target skills in math and reading, and includes access to helpful resources like PowerPoint slides, progress monitoring handouts, a coaching guide, and much more.

Tillman, C. R., & Gandhi, A. (2014). What is an evidence-based behavior intervention? Choosing and implementing behavior interventions that work. Webinar. Accessed on November 11, 2015, from http://www.intensiveintervention.org/video-resource/what-evidence-based-behavior-intervention-choosing-and-implementing-behavior

In this Webinar, hosted by the National Center on Intensive Intervention, the presenters share information on selecting and properly implementing evidence-based practices and programs in the classroom. Included also is an overview of the Behavior Interventions Tools Chart, a resource created by NCII to help educators in both of those processes.

Websites

Center on Response to Intervention
http://www.rti4success.org

The Center on Response to Intervention at the American Institutes of Research (AIR) provides support for states, districts, and schools implementing RTI. The center’s Website includes links to resources for instructors, training modules, resources for families, and much more.

Florida Center for Reading Research
http://www.fcrr.org

The Florida Center for Reading Research is focused on conducting reading research, disseminating research-based practices, and providing technical assistance to Florida’s schools and its State Department of Education. The Website features sections for teachers, coaches, administrators, parents, researchers, and FCRR faculty and staff, among much else.

The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk
http://www.meadowscenter.org

The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk (MCPER) is dedicated to generating, disseminating, and supporting the implementation of empirically validated practices to influence educators, researchers, policymakers, families, and other stakeholders who strive to improve academic, behavioral, and social outcomes for all learners.

National Center on Intensive Intervention
http://www.intensiveintervention.org

The National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) seeks to build state and district capacity to support educators in using data-based individualization to effectively implement intensive interventions in reading, mathematics, and behavior in Grades K–12.

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
http://www.studentprogress.org

Dedicated to the implementation of scientifically based student progress monitoring, the National Center on Student Progress Monitoring offers technical assistance to states and districts and disseminates information about progress monitoring practices proven to work in a wide variety of academic content areas.

RTI Action Network
http://www.rtinetwork.org

The RTI Action Network works to guide educators and families in the large-scale implementation of RTI. It focuses especially on efforts to ensure that struggling students are identified early and receive the necessary supports to be successful.

 

Additional IRIS Resources

Classroom Assessment (Part 1): An Introduction to Monitoring Academic Achievement in the Classroom
This module discusses how progress monitoring can affect the academic outcomes of students, and it demonstrates how to implement curriculum-based measurement with a classroom of students.

Classroom Assessment (Part 2): Evaluating Reading Progress
This module explores in detail the assessment procedures integral to RTI. It also outlines how to use progress monitoring data to determine if a student is meeting the established performance criteria or if more intensive intervention is needed.

RTI (Part 2): Assessment
This module explores in detail the assessment procedures integral to RTI. It also outlines how to use progress monitoring data to determine if a student is meeting the established performance criteria or if more intensive intervention is needed. This module was developed in collaboration with the Tennessee State Improvement Grant and the Tennessee Department of Education.

Case Studies

RTI: Data-Based Decision Making
This Case Study provides information about how to examine a student’s progress monitoring data to determine if the student is responding adequately or if the student would benefit from more intense intervention. It can serve as a companion to the modules ‘RTI (Part 2): Assessment’ and ‘RTI (Part 4): Putting It All Together.’

RTI: Progress Monitoring
This Case Study set is intended to be a supplement to the IRIS Center’s RTI Module series, providing additional opportunities to practice the application of basic progress monitoring concepts within the response to intervention (RTI) approach, including the administration and scoring of probes as well as the graphing of student progress.

Module: PALS: A Reading Strategy for Grades 2–6

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Calhoon, M. B. (2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of learning disabilities, 38(5), 424–433.

In this article, the author examines a study meant to gauge the efficacy of peer-mediated reading instruction (in this case Linguistic Skills Training [LST] and Peer Assisted Learning Strategies [PALS]) among middle-school students identified as struggling readers. Having observed the outcomes of students who received peer-mediated instruction and those who were taught through a more traditional whole-class approach, the author finds that those students in the peer-mediated groups showed greater improvement across a number of relevant skills, including comprehension and letter-word identification. A discussion of the study’s practical implications is included.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., Mathes, P. G., & Martinez, E. A. (2002). Preliminary evidence on the social standing of students with learning disabilities in PALS and no-PALS classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17(4), 205–215.

This article details the results of a study in which the authors collected data on the effects of PALS instruction on the social skills development and social standing of students with learning disabilities. The authors’ findings suggest that participation in peer instruction is indeed a viable means through which to improve both. A discussion of the possible direction of prospective research follows.

Kroeger, S. D., Burton, C., Preston, C. (2009). Integrating evidence-based practices in middle science reading. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 6–15.

This article looks at the difficulties faced by struggling readers in content areas such as science, where the current emphasis on testing has tended to disengage students from more worthwhile and productive forms of inquiry. As an antidote, the authors recommend the use of peer-mediated instruction, through which students can once again become active participants in the “sense-making” activities through which scientific information is best gained.

Linan-Thompson, S, & Vaughn, S. (2007). Adaptations of peer-assisted learning for English language learners: Applications to middle-school social studies classes. The Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, the University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved on June 6, 2008, from http://www.cal.org/create/research/peer-assisted.html

In this article, the authors outline their study into the effects of effective social studies instruction among seventh-grade English language learners for the purpose not only of expanding those students’ knowledge but also of improving their vocabularies. Peer instruction is a key element of the study.

McMaster, K. L., Kung, S., Han, I., & Cao, M. (2008). Peer-assisted learning strategies: A “tier 1” approach to promoting English learners’ response to intervention. Exceptional Children, 74(2), 194–214.

This study compared the effectiveness of the PALS among groups of kindergartner English learners (ELs). The authors find that students who took part in PALS tended to outperform their peers who received alternate interventions. The implications of the study—and its limitations—are discussed in detail.

Ramsey, M. L., Jolivette, K., & Patton, B. (2007). Peer-Assisted learning Strategies for reading in the EBD classroom. Beyond Behavior, 2–6.

This article presents a hypothetical case study in which the authors argue that PALS, besides its positive effects on reading outcomes, can also ameliorate the emotional and behavioral issues of students who demonstrate difficulties with peer relationships and other social functions.

Web Resources

Institute of Education Sciences, United States Department of Education http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/WWC/reports/english_lang/pals/

This section of the highly informative and useful What Works Clearinghouse contains resources related to Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), including an overview, reference links, and a report on the observed effects of PALS implementation.

Promising Practices Network http://www.promisingpractices.net/program.asp?programid=143

The Promising Practices Network, a project of the RAND Corporation, offers a wealth of information related to Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). Included here is an overview, a summary of key evaluation findings, and links to available online resources.

Vanderbilt University, Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Strategies for Successful Learning http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/

This Website developed and maintained by the Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University is a hub for information and resources related to Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). Featured are links to resources regarding professional development in math and reading, a helpful FAQ, teacher materials (including classroom videos of PALS implementation), and an annotated bibliography.

Module: PALS: A Reading Strategy for Grades K–1

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Articles

Mathes, P., Howard, J., Allen, S., Fuchs, D. (1998). Peer-assisted learning strategies for first-grade readers: Responding to the needs of diverse learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 33(1), pp. 62–94.

This article looks at the effectiveness of the PALS approach among first-grade students. Their focus on low-achieving readers, the authors examine the reading outcomes among classrooms in which PALS has been implemented and find that reading gains have indeed occurred.

Rafdal, B. H., McMaster K. L., McConnell, S. R., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2011). The effectiveness of kindergarten peer-assisted learning strategies for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 77(3), 299–316.

The authors of this study here offer an overview of their attempt to determine the effectiveness of implementing Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (K-PALS) among kindergarten students. A number of outcomes suggest that students who are taught using K-PALS do in fact perform better than their peers on certain measures. A discussion of the study’s implications for future educations is included.

Wehby, J., Falk, K., Barton-Arwood, S., Lane, K., Cooley, C. (2003). The impact of comprehensive reading instruction on the academic and social behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(4), pp. 225–238.

This article documents the effects of PALS implementation among students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Researchers conclude that the approach positively affects the reading abilities of said students, though no immediate improvements in behavior were observed. The article concludes with notes about the promise of pursuing further study.

Web Resources

Institute of Education Sciences, United States Department of Education http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/WWC/reports/english_lang/pals/

This section of the highly informative and useful What Works Clearinghouse contains resources related to Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), including an overview, reference links, and a report on the observed effects of PALS implementation.

Promising Practices Network http://www.promisingpractices.net/program.asp?programid=143

The Promising Practices Network, a project of the RAND Corporation, offers a wealth of information related to Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). Included here is an overview, a summary of key evaluation findings, and links to available online resources.

Vanderbilt University, Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Strategies for Successful Learning http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/

This Website developed and maintained by the Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University is a hub for information and resources related to Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). Featured are links to resources regarding professional development in math and reading, a helpful FAQ, teacher materials (including classroom videos of PALS implementation), and an annotated bibliography.

Module: PALS: A Reading Strategy for High School

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Articles

The Access Center. (2004). Using peer tutoring to facilitate access. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/documents/PeerTutoringFinal.doc 

This information brief from the Access Center advocates peer tutoring as a means through which to offer students with disabilities greater access to the general education curriculum. Included is a description of various methods of peer instruction as well as references and information for readers who wish to read further.
 

Calhoon, M., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). The effects of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies and curriculum-based measurement on the mathematics performance of secondary students
with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 24(4), 235–245. 

This report details a study in which ten classes of high-school students were exposed to PALS/ CBM as a means of improving their math scores. The authors find that such exposure did indeed increase the scores of the students when compared to students in a control. A further discussion of these results follows.
 

Calhoon, M. B. (2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of learning disabilities, 38(5), 424–433. 

In this article, the author examines a study meant to gauge the efficacy of peer-mediated reading instruction (in this case Linguistic Skills Training [LST] and Peer Assisted Learning Strategies [PALS]) among middle-school students identified as struggling readers. Having observed the outcomes of students who received peer-mediated instruction and those who were taught through a more traditional whole-class approach, the author finds that those students in the peer-mediated groups showed greater improvement across a number of relevant skills, including comprehension and letter-word identification. A discussion of the study’s practical implications is included.
 

Kroeger, S. D., Burton, C., Preston, C. (2009). Integrating evidence-based practices in middle science reading. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 6–15. 

This article looks at the difficulties faced by struggling readers in content areas such as science, where the current emphasis on testing has tended to disengage students from more worthwhile and productive forms of inquiry. As an antidote, the authors recommend the use of peer-mediated instruction, through which students can once again become active participants in the “sense-making” activities through which scientific information is best gained.
 

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Graetz, J. E. (2003). Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26(2), 103–116. 

This article features a detailed discussion of the kinds of reading challenges commonly faced by high school students with disabilities. A number of research-validated practices (including a peer-tutoring method) are described, and the implications for further research discussed.
 

Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T., Mohler, L., Beranek, M., Spencer, V., Boon, R. T., & Talbott, E. (2001). Can middle school students with serious reading difficulties help each other and learn anything? Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(1), 18–27. 

This article treats of an investigation into the efficacy of peer-assisted learning among students with learning disabilities and mild retardation. The researchers found a number of benefits and improvements associated with the peer-instruction method. A discussion of the implications the course of further research is included.

Web Resources

PALS Website. Teaching materials, reading samples, high school reading manual. Retrieved June 17, 2008, from http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/teachmat/HSSamples.html 

This section of the PALS Website includes handy materials for teachers who wish to implement PALS in their classrooms. Included is a list of objectives, materials outline, and teacher scripts. The resources are in GIF format for easy downloading and printing.

Module: Providing Instructional Supports: Facilitating Mastery of New Skills

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Articles

Reid, D. K. (1998). Scaffolding: A broader view. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 386–396.

This article considers scaffolding in a broad context, examining “the historical context of learning disabilities, the emerging focus on learners’ activity, the reification of learning disabilities, and the unintended effects that frequently occur as a by-product of injudicious (and often unintentional) scaffolding.” The book explores theory, real-life intervention, and how each affects the other.

Stone, C. A. (1998). The metaphor of scaffolding: Its utility for the field of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 344–364.

In order to better understand the application of scaffolding strategies on atypical learners, the book offers a critical analysis of the concept of scaffolding as a metaphor for how to “guide children’s learning and development.” The book opens with information about the origins and early applications of the metaphor; it then shifts its focus to criticisms.

Books

Byrnes, J. P. (2001). Cognitive development and learning in instructional contexts (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Organized in two parts, the book seeks to describe children’s learning capabilities at different ages. One part of the book focuses on background information, such as principles of learning. The other section examines developmental trends that are apparent as children acquire skills in different content areas.

Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (Eds.). (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and issues. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

This book is composed of a variety of original papers discussing the topic of scaffolding. Both theory and practice are addressed in the book, as are practical tips and success rates for one-on-one tutoring.

Pressley, M., & Associates (1995). Cognitive strategy instruction that really  improves children’s academic performance (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

This second-edition discusses strategies for teaching a variety of elementary and middle-school content areas, such as reading comprehension, mathematics, and science. Covering background and practical topics, the book features current perspectives, explanations of the logic behind strategies, and details on how to apply research-validated strategies.

Reid, R., & Lienemann, T. (1995). Cognitive strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities. New York: Guilford Publications.

Scaffolding is one important component of strategy instruction, and this book provides practical examples of how to scaffold instruction. Additionally, it includes information on specific scaffolding techniques and how they can be used with students who have learning disabilities.

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., Shank, M., & Smith, S. J. (2004). Exceptional lives: Special education in today’s schools (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Intended to aid teachers in addressing the goals of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1997, the book examines methods for implementing best practices. The four major categories covered in the book are universal design for learning, inclusion, collaboration, and multicultural responsiveness. The book also features examples of real students with real disabilities.

Online Resources

Funderstanding [Online] http://www.funderstanding.com/vygotsky.cfm

A group of product development consultants focusing on youth, Funderstanding has posted a page about Vygotsky and social cognition on its Website. The page defines social cognition, lists discussion points, looks at how Vygotsky impacts learning, and suggests additional readings on the subject. The site also features information on other learning theories, as well as links to sections on education history, resources, influences, among others.

San Diego City Schools: Technology Challenge Grants http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/presentation/scaffolding.htm

Part of the San Diego City Schools Technology Challenge Grants program, the Web page “Scaffolding Strategy” provides numerous links to examples of three types of scaffolding: reception, transformation, and production. For instance, visitors can link to a page with a picture glossary intended as a scaffold for learning vocabulary. Dr. Bernie Dodge of San Diego State University originally created “A Scaffolding Strategy” as a presentation for the Computer-Using Educators (CUE) Convention in spring 2000.

Module: Related Services: Common Supports for Students with Disabilities

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Online Resources

American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc. http://www.aota.org/

This official Website of the national organization includes a veritable wealth of information and resources. On hand is information about the role of occupational therapy in a variety of venues and arenas, a link to the latest issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (and access to its archives), and resources related to issue awareness, among much else.

American Physical Therapy Association http://www.apta.org/

This Website of the American Physical Therapy Association offers the latest news and information about upcoming events related to physical therapy. Also found here, information on the organization’s national advocacy efforts and links to publications and news of interest.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association http://www.asha.org/

The official Website of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association offers links to information about the organization’s ongoing public advocacy efforts, resources for a wide variety of speech-language and hearing disorders and other practice and policy information, links to ASHA journals and other publications, and a wealth of information and research on many other related topics.

National Association of School Psychologists http://www.nasponline.org/

Found here at the official Website of the National Association of School Psychologists is the NASP model, links to the organization’s training and professional standards, and links for students and their families, among much, much more.

National Association of Social Workers http://www.naswdc.org/

The Website of the National Association of Social Workers offers information and resources related to practice and professional development, national advocacy, links to “trending topics” in social work, and links to publications of interest to social workers and those interested in social work in general.
 

Module: RTI (Part 1): An Overview

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Articles

Byrd, E. S. (2011). Educating and involving parents in the response to intervention process: The school’s important role. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), pp. 32–39.  

This informative article lays out the basics of the response to intervention approach and makes a detailed case for schools to enlist parental involvement in the process. Featured are notes on ways to address parents in a way that is helpful and informative without being overwhelming, various strategies for educating parents about RTI and what it entails, and thoughts on creating a support group. A brief list of studies related to parental involvement is included.
 

Chamberlain, S. P. (2006). Sharon Vaughn: The state of reading research and instruction for struggling readers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(3), 169–174. 

In this interview, leading researcher Dr. Sharon Vaughn describes the state of research and instruction related to the reading skills of struggling learners. The conversation covers the direction of public policy, the extent to which current research is being translated into instructional materials and classroom teaching methods, and the special needs of English language learners (ELL), among much more.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Compton, D. L. (2012). Smart RTI: A next-generation approach to multilevel prevention. Exceptional Children, 78(3), 263–279. 

As schools and school systems continue to implement RTI, the authors of this article set out to promote a program of “Smart RTI,” whereby those schools make the best use of what are by definition limited resources in order to maximize the learning outcomes for their students. Key to Smart RTI implementation, the authors argue, is a system of multiple screenings and assessments, as well as an important role for special education.

Reschly, D. J. (2005). LD identification: Primary intervention, secondary intervention, and then what? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(6), 510–515. 

Here the author asks the question what is to be done when primary and secondary RTI intervention have proved inadequate for a struggling learner diagnosed with a specific learning disability (SLD). Topics include the research into the effectiveness of more intensive intervention programs, as well as the potential importance of intraindividual differences among students, and the integration of services across academic settings.

Speece, D. L., Case, L. P., & Molloy, D. E. (2003). Responsiveness to general education instruction as the first gate to learning disabilities identification. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 147–156. 

This review of research focuses on the extent to which students’ response to general education reading instruction indicates a need for more intensive interventions. Included are thoughts about the validity of the dually-discrepant classification and the reliability with which persistent non-responsiveness might indicate the presence of a disability.

Speece, D. L., Molloy, D. E., & Case, L. P. (2003). Starting at the beginning for learning disabilities identification: Response to instruction in general education. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 16, 37–50. 

This examination of the extent to which students’ response to general education reading instruction indicates a need for more intensive interventions finds that this method provides a valid model for determining the necessity of those services.

Torgesen, J. K. (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15(1), 55–64. 

This review of research into the effectiveness of reading instruction finds that a small but significant number of students will exit the early elementary grades lacking adequate reading skills.  On hand here is a discussion of the broader implications of that research, as well as a conversation about which reading skills prove most elusive for struggling leaners, and a suggestion of the possible direction of future investigation, among much more.

Vaughn, S., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2003). What is special about special education for students with learning disabilities? The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 140–147. 

In this overview of the history and current state of special education, the authors examine the key components of academic instruction for students with learning disabilities, implementation and fidelity, and the acceleration of instructional intensity through the provision of one-one-one instruction, among much else.

Position Statement

National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (2005, Fall). Cultural considerations and challenges in response-to-intervention models. Denver: National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems. 

This position statement providing considerations for the culturally responsive implementation of RTI can be downloaded at http://www.nccrest.org/publications/position_statements.html

Books

Batsche, G., Elliott, J., Graden, J. L., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Virginia: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc. 

In addition to background and general information on RTI, this handbook includes policy and professional development considerations to help guide personnel in schools, districts, and states as they begin to implement the RTI approach.
 

Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, D. P. (Eds.). (2002). Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 

This book provides in-depth and detailed information on the identification of learning disabilities, including historical perspectives and the use of IQ-achievement discrepancy models, and has several chapters devoted to response to intervention.

Online Resources

Learning Disabilities Summit http://ldsummit.air.org/ 

Sponsored by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), the summit was held in August 2001 in Washington, DC. The papers presented at the summit, which included topics on response to intervention, can be downloaded from the Website. Videos and transcripts of each session are also available as free downloads.
 

National Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/ 

This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”
 

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring http://www.studentprogress.org/ 

The National Center on Student Progress Monitoring is a national technical assistance and dissemination center funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). It provides assistance to states and districts that are interested in implementing progress monitoring in grades K–5.
 

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities http://www.nrcld.org/ 

The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities is funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). RTI evaluation, technical assistance, and dissemination are among its many activities.
 

RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/ 

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.
 

Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/ 

Housed at the University of Texas at Austin, the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts offers information on scientifically based reading research and instruction. Professional development materials include detailed background and implementation guidelines for a 3-Tier intervention model.

Module: RTI (Part 2): Assessment

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Articles

Fletcher, J. M., Coulter, W. A., Reschly, D., & Vaughn, S. (2004). Alternative approaches to the definition and identification of learning disabilities: Some questions and answers. Annals of Dyslexia, 54(2), 304–331.

The article’s purpose, according to its authors, is to review a variety of recent consensus reports that suggest shifting from IQ-discrepancy methods to an Response-to-Instruction (RTI) approach for identifying students with learning disabilities. The article discusses reasons for the changes that are beginning to affect students, teachers, and even federal law. In addition to the background information, the article poses and then answers seventeen frequently asked questions regarding identification processes and the current trend toward change.

Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, B. A., & Shaywitz, S. E. (2005). Psychometric approaches to the identification of LD: IQ and achievement scores are not sufficient. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(2), 98–108.

The authors used simulated data in their study to show that “the practice of providing a normal distribution with arbitrary cut-points leads to instability in group membership.” Based on their conclusions, the authors state that it is necessary to develop identification systems that will address the practice of classifying low achievers into multiple groups.

Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Paulsen, K., Bryant, J., & Hamlett, C.L. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention: Preventing and identifying mathematics disability. Teaching Exceptional Children, 37(4), 60–63.

According to the authors, the purpose of the article is to “describe work on intervention responsiveness in mathematics.” Conducted through The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities—which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)—the authors focus their attention on how to both prevent and identify disability in first grade using Response to Intervention (RTI). The article specifically discusses the mathematics assessment and tutoring practices for students in 41 first-grade classrooms in 10 schools.

Klinger, J. K., Artiles, A. J., & Méndez Barletta, L. (2006). English language learners who struggle with reading: Language acquisition or LD? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 108–128.

The research article seeks to differentiate the struggles of English Language Learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities (LD) from those of ELLs without LD. The study suggests that further research is necessary to fully determine why some ELLs who do not have LD still exhibit difficulties with language acquisition. It is important, the authors say, to consider cultural and contextual factors when pursuing constructive information on this topic.

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities, The. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention in the SLD determination process. U.S. Department of Education [Online]. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from http://osepideasthatwork.org/toolkit/ta_responsiveness_intervention.asp

The article provides an overview of the concepts involved with Response to Intervention (RTI). In addition to introductory explanations, the article provides models and hypothetical examples of how RTI could be implemented in schools. Importantly, the article also covers the topic of identifying students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and the role of RTI in that process.

Speece, D. (n.d.). How progress monitoring assists decision making in a response-to-instruction framework. National Center on Student Progress Monitoring. Retrieved April 18, 2006, from http://www.studentprogress.org/library/articles.asp#howprogress

The article provides details on a study tracking students’ responsiveness using curriculum-based measures (CBM) of oral reading fluency. The authors conclude, according to their findings, that “weekly progress monitoring, which includes systematic data interpretation and teacher action, is central to good decision-making in an RTI framework.”

Warner, T. D., Dede, D. E., Garvan, C. W., & Conway, T. W. (2002). One size still does not fit all in specific learning disability assessment across ethnic groups. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(6), 500–508.

Concerned by state policies that continue to support/promote/require discrepancy models for identifying students with learning disabilities, this study “compares the use of a minimum IQ cutoff score and a simple difference method versus a regression method for identifying SLD in a sample of African American and European American full-time college students.” The researchers’ findings fall in line with criticism of discrepancy models as outdated forms of assessment. The study also discusses the historical over-representation of African Americans in special education categories except for SLD.

Position Statement

The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt). Cultural considerations and challenges in response-to-intervention models. (Position Statement). Retrieved April 18, 2006, from http://nccrest.org/PDFs/rti.pdf?v_document_name=Culturally%20Responsive%20RTI

The position statement posits that in order for RTI to achieve its potential and ensure educational opportunities for culturally and linguistically diverse students, it is first necessary to understand the role of culture in the RTI approach. The authors’ intent, they state, is to engage in “conversation with others involved in this work.” The statement promotes the principles “Intervention design should be based on a theory of culture in learning,” and “Research must account for how contextual contingencies and inequalities across contexts challenge ecological validity.”

Presentation

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring 2005 Summer Institute: “Introduction to CBM in Reading” http://www.studentprogress.org/library/training.asp

The PowerPoint presentation covers a variety of CBM topics, such as benchmarks, risk indicators, word identification fluency, and goals by grade level. The presentation gives explanations, tips, and a sample WIF test.

Probe

Vanderbilt University WIF probe. Available through Vanderbilt at Peabody #228, 230 Appleton Place, Nashville, TN 37203-5721. Attention: Flora Murray. (615) 343-4782.

CBM measures, scoring sheets, administration instruction, and scoring instructions are available for free, excepting copying costs and postage.

Online Resources

Ed.Gov: Frequently Asked Questions About Reading First http://www.ed.gov/programs/readingfirst/faq.html

This page on the U.S. Department of Education’s Website provides basic facts about the Reading First program, answering site visitors’ frequently asked questions. Some of the questions featured on the page include “How well are America’s children reading?” “What is Reading First exactly, and what are its specific goals?” and “How will Reading First help classroom teachers?” to list a few.
Michigan’s Project Great Start: “Helping Children Learn to Read”

National Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/

This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”

PALS: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/

Visit the official PALS Website for resources and commercial products related to peer-assisted learning strategies. Visitors will find Modules about PALS reading and math, as well as training resources, research into the effectiveness of the strategies, products for teachers, and more.

RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.

University of Oregon DIBELS Chart https://dibels.uoregon.edu/docs/benchmarkgoals4x.pdf

This page on the University of Oregon Website displays the chart “DIBELS 6th Edition Benchmark Goals: Four Assessment Periods Per Year.” The chart provides rows for four DIBELS measures: Initial Sound Fluency (ISF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), and Word Use Fluency (WUF). Scores and status columns are listed for each measure.

Module: RTI (Part 3): Reading Instruction

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Articles

Blake, A. (1998, Fall Special Supplement). Putting research to use: Activities that help children read. The Tutor. Retrieved June 10, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/learns/tutor/fall1998/fall1998ss.pdf

This article summarizes 13 core understandings about learning to read and includes activity ideas for helping students master these core areas. The activities can easily be modified to fit different needs.

Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2006). Improving the reading achievement of America’s children: 10 research-based principles.
Retrieved June 10, 2006, from http://www.ciera.org/library/instresrc/principles/10acprin.pdf

This one-page document contains concise yet thorough principles for parents and preschool and elementary teachers for developing excellent reading skills in American students.

Coyne, M. D., & Koriakin, T. A. (2017). What do beginning special educators need to know about intensive reading interventions? TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 239–248.

Here the authors stress both the crucial importance of elementary reading instruction to student success, as well as the special challenge posed by students with disabilities, for whom reading is a primary area of difficulty. In response, the authors promote a pair of effective practices, explicit decoding instruction and explicit vocabulary instruction. A list of reliable resources for further exploration is also included.

Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1998). What reading does for the mind. American Educator, 22, 8–15.

The authors review research that points out how reading volume affects students’ acquisition of vocabulary, general knowledge, cognitive ability, and verbal intelligence. This article concludes by encouraging teachers of low-achieving students that reading is a habit that can clearly help students who may seem helpless.

Honig, B. (1997, September). Reading the right way: What research and best practices say about eliminating failure among beginning readers. The School Administrator. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.aasa.org/SchoolAdministratorArticle.aspx?id=15708

Honig advocates teaching reading to students using “a thinking phonics program that strives for understanding of the alphabetic principle and uses engaging activities to help students learn it.” He gives evidence for the value of teaching skills such as decoding and phonemic awareness.

International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1998). Learning to read and write: Developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSREAD98.PDF

This is a position statement (16 pages) intended to provide guidance to teachers and childcare providers so that young children will learn not only to read and write but also to enjoy reading and writing. This publication includes many practical, research-based tips for teaching preschoolers, Kindergarteners, and students in grades 1–3.

Matson, B. (1996). Whole language or phonics? Teachers and researchers find the middle ground most fertile. The Harvard Education Letter, 12(2), 1–5.

The author provides a concise look at the whole-language-versus-phonics debate and gives evidence for why a balanced approach is most effective for student learning.

McMaster, K. L., Kung, S., Han, I., & Cao, M. (2008). Peer-assisted learning strategies: A “tier 1” approach to promoting English learners’ response to intervention. Exceptional Children, 74(2), 194–214.

This study compared the effectiveness of the PALS among groups of kindergartner English learners (ELs). The authors find that students who took part in PALS tended to outperform their peers who received alternate interventions. The implications of the study—and its limitations—are discussed in detail.

Solari, E. J., Denton, C. A., & Haring, C. (2017). How to reach first-grade struggling readers: An integrated instructional approach. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(3), 149–159.

This article lays out a process for helping struggling readers to become better and more proficient ones. The authors cover the basic principles of an integrated reading framework, as well as characteristics of effective reading instruction, comprehension instruction, and tier 2 foundational skills instruction, among much else.

Tennessee State Improvement Grant. (2007, November 11). Helping your child at home: Reading strategies parents can use. (UT publication No. RO1-1704-058-005-08). Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Center for Literary Studies.

This informative publication––edited by Dr. Reggie Curran and reviewed by Dr. Sandy H. Smith––includes definitions of key reading skills (e.g., “Phonemic Awareness,” “Comprehension”) and what parents can do to promote them in their children, as well as vocabulary building strategies and helpful tips for selecting age-appropriate reading materials.

Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Kouzekanani, K., Bryant, D. P., Dickson, S., & Blozis, S. A. (2003). Reading instruction grouping for students with reading difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 24 (5), 301–315.

This article examines a study in the relative outcomes of grouping formats related to the performance of struggling second-grade readers. Three grouping combinations were tested—one teacher to one student, one teacher to three students, and one teacher to ten students. The researchers find that students in all groups demonstrated significant improvements along a number of skill sets (e.g., fluency and comprehension), but that students in the 1:1 and 1:3 groups had higher scores than did those in the 1:10 group. The article concludes with a discussion of the study’s practical implications and suggestion for possible areas for future research.

Books

Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Adams discusses the broad historical and educational contexts of reading instruction and provides reviews of research on phonics instruction and the reading process. According to Adams, decades of reading research clearly supports direct phonics instruction along with immersion in meaningful texts. The final chapters of this book provide a valuable discussion of ways to increase the efficiency of early reading instruction through instruction in areas such as phonological awareness, print awareness, and the phonemic structure of words.

Honig, B. (1996). Teaching our children to read: The role of skills in a comprehensive reading program. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Honig writes that students learn to read when educators have a plan for systematic skills development within in a language- and literature-rich environment. He clearly describes the skills that must be learned and outlines when they must be learned to ensure that students will be reading age-appropriate material fluently and with a high level of comprehension by the end of elementary school.

Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. (The Report of the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [Electronic version]. Retrieved August 18, 2006, from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030906418X/

This book describes the problem of reading difficulties in children from preschool to grade three and then offers research-based analyses of preventions and interventions. Also included are recommendations for practice, policy, and research.

Online Resources

DIBELS http://dibels.uoregon.edu

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) is a set of standardized, individually administered measures of early literacy development. They are designed to be short (one-minute) fluency measures used to regularly monitor the development of prereading and early reading skills. Measures are available for free download.

Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement (IDEA) http://reading.uoregon.edu

This Website contains research-based information about the five “big ideas” in beginning reading (phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency with text, vocabulary, and comprehension) and emphasizes continuing assessment. Helpful tips on instruction are included throughout.

The National Center on Progress Monitoring http://www.studentprogress.org

This Website provides a wealth of information about progress monitoring and formative assessment, including Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM). Click the “library” link to access newsletters and research articles.

National Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/

This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”

PALS: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/

Visit the official PALS Website for resources and commercial products related to peer-assisted learning strategies. Visitors will find Modules about PALS reading and math, as well as training resources, research into the effectiveness of the strategies, products for teachers, and more.

Reading Rockets http://www.readingrockets.org

This national multimedia project offers information and resources on how young kids learn to read, why so many struggle, and how caring adults (parents, teachers, childcare providers, and school leaders) can help. The Website offers reading news headlines, research-based articles, tips for parents and educators, video interviews with children’s book authors, and a monthly e-newsletter.

RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.

Module: RTI (Part 4): Putting It All Together

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Articles

Blake, A. (1998, Fall Special Supplement). Putting research to use: Activities that help children read. The Tutor. Retrieved on November 15, 2011, from http://www.nationalserviceresources.org/learns/putting

This article summarizes 13 core understandings about learning to read and includes activity ideas for helping students master these core areas. The activities can easily be modified to fit different needs.

Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2006). Improving the reading achievement of America’s children: 10 research-based principles. Retrieved on June 10, 2006, from http://www.ciera.org/library/instresrc/principles/10acprin.pdf

This one-page document contains concise yet thorough principles for parents and preschool and elementary teachers for developing excellent reading skills in American students.

Probe

Vanderbilt University PRF probe. Available through Vanderbilt at Peabody #228, 230 Appleton Place, Nashville, TN 37203-5721. Attention: Flora Murray. (615) 343-4782.

CBM measures, scoring sheets, administration instruction, and scoring instructions are available for free, excepting copying costs and postage.

Online Resources

Ed.Gov: Frequently Asked Questions About Reading First http://www.ed.gov/programs/readingfirst/faq.html

This page on the U.S. Department of Education’s Website provides basic facts about the Reading First program, answering site visitors’ frequently asked questions. Some of the questions featured on the page include “How well are America’s children reading?”, “What is Reading First exactly, and what are its specific goals?”, and “How will Reading First help classroom teachers?”, to list a few.

The Florida Center for Reading Research http://www.fcrr.org/

The Florida Center for Reading Research is an organization focused on conducting reading research (basic and applied), disseminating research-based practices, and providing technical assistance to Florida’s schools and its State Department of Education. The Website features sections for teachers, coaches, administrators, parents, researchers, and FCRR faculty and staff. Links to research, assessment programs, reporting networks, professional development information, and other resource pages are posted on the main page.

National Center for Learning Disabilities http://www.ncld.org/

This resource-packed Website includes information for the parents of children with learning disabilities. On hand are podcasts, resources for both home and school, and political action notes and links so that parents can stay abreast of legislative actions that might affect their children. A section on “LD Basics” includes a round-up of the current research, a glossary, and answers to frequently posed questions related to children and learning disabilities.

The National Center on Progress Monitoring http://www.studentprogress.org

This Website provides a wealth of information about progress monitoring and formative assessment, including curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Click the “library” link to access newsletters and research articles.

National Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/

This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”

Reading First in Tennessee http://tennessee.gov/education/readingfirst//

This page on the State of Tennessee’s Website details information about the Reading First grant it received from the U.S. Department of Education Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. The page links to a Reading First intervention guide and to eligibility and grant information. In addition, key contacts for Tennessee’s Reading First program are listed along with their contact information.

Reading Rockets http://www.readingrockets.org

This national multimedia project offers information and resources on how young kids learn to read, why so many struggle, and how caring adults (parents, teachers, childcare providers, and principals) can help. The Website offers reading news headlines, research-based articles, tips for parents and educators, video interviews with children’s book authors, and a monthly e-newsletter.

RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.

RTI Wire http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/rti/rti_wire.php

The online group Intervention Central (www.interventioncentral.org) has created the RTI Wire as a Random Intervention Idea. The site describes itself as a “‘one-stop’ directory of free, high-quality ‘Response-to-Intervention’ resources [online].” The page provides a few introductory paragraphs on what RTI is and how it is being put into practice in schools. It then divides RTI into key steps and lists a variety of online resources that provide information related to each respective step of the RTI process. The site welcomes visitors to submit additional RTI sources for posting.

University of Oregon DIBELS Chart http://dibels.uoregon.edu/benchmarkgoals.pdf

This page on the University of Oregon Website displays the chart “DIBELS Benchmark Goals and Indicators of Risk Three Assessment Periods Per Year.” The chart provides rows for four DIBELS measures: Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency, and Oral Reading Fluency. Scores and status columns are listed for each measure.

Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/

Housed at the University of Texas at Austin, the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts provides information on scientifically based reading research and instruction. Professional development materials include detailed background and implementation guidelines for a 3-Tier intervention model.

Module: RTI (Part 5): A Closer Look at Tier 3

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Books and Articles

Colorado Department of Education, Special Education Services Unit. (2002). Fast facts: Critical questions about the special education process and English language learners. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from
http://cospl.coalliance.org/fez/pdf_swf.php?pid=co:2327&pdf_file=ed14402en32002internet.pdf

This handy fact sheet outlines a number of critical questions to ask before English language learners (ELL) are referred to special education services, before the assessment process is undertaken, and before the relevant services are designed.

Division for Learning Disabilities. (2007). Thinking about response to intervention and learning disabilities: A teacher’s guide. Arlington, VA: Author.

This guide to response to intervention created by the Council for Exceptional Children, Division for Learning Disabilities, is filled with useful tips and information for teachers to help them to understand the RTI process and to become more fully engaged participants during the RTI implementation process in their own schools and districts.

Figueroa, R. A., & Newsome, P. (2006). The diagnosis of LD in English learners: Is it nondiscriminatory? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), 206–214.

This study takes a close look at the state of assessment testing in schools with an eye toward determining how effective have been various acts of Congress in eliminating discriminatory testing. The authors find that, as regards English language learners (ELL), the authors of tests meant to assess learning disabilities do not make appropriate use of the relevant guidelines in the development of said testing vehicles.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Compton, D. L. (2012). Smart RTI: A next-generation approach to multilevel prevention. Exceptional Children, 78(3), 263–279.

In this review of the RTI method, the authors revisit the history and efficacy of the approach and offer some suggestions about how a somewhat modified “Smart RTI” might better address the needs of future students. On hand are discussions of levels versus tiers, secondary prevention for struggling students, and two-stage screening, among much more.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D. L., et al. (2007). Dynamic assessment as responsiveness to intervention: A scripted protocol to identify young at-risk readers. TEACHING: Exceptional Children, 39(5), 58–63.

This article describes an alternative (and augmentation) to the traditional methods of assessment testing, one that emphasizes an ongoing process of intervention and seeks to avoid the “wait to fail” pitfall of earlier assessment vehicles.

Hoover, J. J., & Love, E. (2011). Supporting school-based response to intervention: A practitioner’s model. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), pp. 40–48.

This article examines the efforts of a trio of schools to implement the response to intervention model and how each of them fared. The authors break down what they consider key elements to successful implementation and consider the various roadblocks to that success that schools are likely to encounter during the process. The article concludes with further thoughts for practitioners.

Klingner, J. & Artiles, A. J. (2206). English language learners struggling to learn to read: Emergent scholarship on linguistic differences and learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 386–389.

This article examines the explosion of the English language learner (ELL) population and the correlating increase in inappropriate referrals to special education.

Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2006). The response to intervention of English language learners at risk for reading problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 390–398.

This study follows the English language and reading instruction of a group of first-grade English language learners (ELL) identified as “at risk,” and subsequently finds that those who received early intervention fared better than did those who took part only in their school’s traditional reading curriculum for struggling readers.

Yell, M. L., Shriner, J. G., & Katsiyannis, A. (2006). Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2002 and IDEA regulations of 2006: Implications for educators, administrators, and teacher trainers. Focus on Exceptional Children, 39(1), 1–24.

In this article, the authors offer a detailed overview of how the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Act and No Child Left Behind have affected the special education landscape and suggest that in order to successfully implement the measures outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEAI) teachers, administrators, and teacher trainers will find it necessary to carefully follow subsequent changes to the relevant statutes.

Online Resources

Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (John Hopkins University). Best Evidence Encyclopedia. http://www.bestevidence.org/

This online clearinghouse offers information on the researched evaluations of numerous educational programs in a coherently arranged and easy-to-navigate format.

Florida State University Learning Systems Institute. The Florida Center for Reading Research. http://www.fcrr.org/

This site exists to broadcast research-validated information regarding literacy and assessment. Included are articles related to RTI implementation and information for principals about how to improve reading outcomes in their schools.

Institute for the Development of Education Achievement, University of Oregon. Big Ideas in Beginning Reading. http://reading.uoregon.edu/

This Website focusing on the five core components of reading offers information and resources to educators and parents with the goal of ensuring that all students are able to read at grade-level by the close of their third-grade year.

National Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/

This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”

RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.

United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (n.d.) Tool kit on teaching and assessing students with disabilities: Responsiveness to intervention in the SLD determination process. Retrieved on June 11, 2008, from http://www.osepideasthatwork.org/toolkit/ta_responsiveness_intervention.asp

This site offers an overview of the Response to Intervention model, with an emphasis on identifying students who have specific learning disabilities as outlined in IDEA ’04. Information in terminology, differences in intervention at the various tiers, and the determination of responsiveness is also available.

United States Department of Education. What Works Clearinghouse. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/

Browse this site to read the latest from the U.S. Department of Education. Topics include “Beginning Reading,” “English Language Learners,” and “Dropout Prevention.” Online resources allow users to create their own “Effectiveness Rating” chart.

Module: RTI: Considerations for School Leaders

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Articles

Burdette, P. (2007, April). Response to intervention as it relates to early intervening services: Recommendations. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education.

This report from the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) seeks to clarify and further explain the legislative and policy history related to RTI and EIS, as well as to summarize the recommendations and concerns of RTI and EIS policy forum contributors.

Burns, M. K., Egan, A. M., Kunkel, A. K., McComas, J, Peterson, M. M., Rahn, N. L., & Wilson, J. (2013). Training for generalization and maintenance in RtI implementation: Front-loaded for sustainability. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 28(2), 81–88. Retrieved on May 24, 2013, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ldrp.12009/full

One of the challenges of effective RTI implementation is the ability of instructors and school personnel to sustain the approach over a span of years. In this article, the authors examine a number of possible solutions to the problem, including an emphasis on training multiple exemplars, a training style that takes into account a wide variety of common classroom circumstances, and a focus on the procedures most likely to lead to sustained implementation.

Byrd, E. S. (2011). Educating and involving parents in the response to intervention process: The school’s important role. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), pp. 32–39. Retrieved on August 2, 2011, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7749/is_201101/ai_n56828481/

This informative article lays out the basics of the response to intervention approach and makes a detailed case for schools to enlist parental involvement in the process. Featured are notes on ways to address parents in a way that is helpful and informative without being overwhelming, various strategies for educating parents about RTI and what it entails, and thoughts on creating a support group. A brief list of studies related to parental involvement is included.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. National Implementation Research Network. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from http://ctndisseminationlibrary.org/PDF/nirnmonograph.pdf

The document summarizes the findings from the literature on implementing practices or programs in any domain. The review confirms that systematic implementation is essential to evidenced-based practices and programs and puts forth a number of recommendations.

Fullan, M., Cuttress, C., & Kilcher, A. (2005). 8 forces for leaders of change. National Staff Development Council, 26(4), 54–64.

This article addresses the question of how to lead policymakers to accept change, and how to react when implemented changes fail. It describes eight key drivers to creating effective and lasting change in schools and their communities.

Hill, D. R., King, S. A., Lemons, C. J., & Partanen, J. N. (2012). Fidelity of implementation and instructional alignment in response to intervention research. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 27(3), 116–124.

This review of current research seeks to evaluate the extent to which studies of reading inventions monitored fidelity of implementation between RTI tiers. A data-filled evaluation of the studies indicated is supplemented by a discussion of the various outcomes and a suggestion for future research efforts.

Hoover, J. J., & Love, E. (2011). Supporting school-based response to intervention: A practitioner’s model. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), pp. 40–48.

This article examines the efforts of a trio of schools to implement the response to intervention model and how each of them fared. The authors break down what they consider key elements to successful implementation and consider the various roadblocks to that success that schools are likely to encounter during the process. The article concludes with further thoughts for practitioners.

Hoover, J. J., & Patton, J. R. (2008). The role of special educators in a multitiered instructional system. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(4), 195–202.

In this article, the authors examine the emergence of the multitiered educational model designed to accommodate all learners, including those with disabilities, to the greatest possible degree. Included are detailed discussions of multilevel instructional programming and the response to intervention approach, as well as a consideration of five skills the authors feel special educators should possess.

Knoff, H. M. (2009). Implementing response-to-intervention at the school, district, and state levels: Functional assessment, data-based problem solving, and evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions. Little Rock, AZ: Project ACHIEVE Press.

This book length-treatment of the challenges and considerations that accompany RTI implementation at a variety of institutional levels contains information about functional assessments, the three essential components of professional development, and thoughts about the effective delivery of interventions to students, among many other topics. A comprehensive appendix follows, including useful Action Planning forms, sample RTI action plans, and evaluation sheets.

Kurns, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2008). Response to intervention: Blueprints for implementation: School building level edition. Retrieved on July 3, 2008, from http://www.nasdse.org/Portals/0/SCHOOL.pdf

This joint publication of the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and Council of Administrators of Special Education (CASE)—one in a three-part series—outlines a step-by-step blueprint for RTI implementation, including available resources (with links to Websites and online materials) and expert “Wisdom from the Field.” A “School Building Level Self Assessment” workbook is also included. The rest of the series is available in pdf format from http://www.nasdse.org/.

Mellard, D. F., McKnight, M. A., & Deshler, D. D. (2007). The ABCs of RTI elementary school reading: A guide for parents. Lawrence, KS: The National Research Center on
Learning Disabilities.

This informative and helpful work treats of a variety of topics related to RTI practices, including progress monitoring, tiered instruction, and fidelity of implementation. Each section features a number of suggested questions for the parents of children involved in the RTI process, and the packet culminates in a workbook designed to help parents to address similar concerns.

National Association of School Psychologists, et al. (2006, November). New roles in response to intervention: Creating success for schools and children. Retrieved on February 10, 2009, from http://www.nasponline.org/advocacy/New%20Roles%20in%20RTI.pdf

This collaboration spearheaded by the National Association of School Psychologists and involving the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA), and National Education Association (NEA), among many others, represents an attempt to create a coherent vision of RTI implementation from a host of different perspectives. Self-describedly diverse in its viewpoints, the resulting document includes insights on such topics as “New Roles for Speech-Language Pathologists,” “The Role of Reading Specialists in the RTI Process,” and “New Roles for Social Workers,” to name but a few. A shared bibliography is included.

National Association of State Directors of Special Education, The. (2006). Response to Intervention: A joint paper by the National Association of State Directors of Special Education and the Council of Administrators of Special Education. Alexandria, VA.

This paper reviews various aspects of RTI, such as its importance, assessment procedures, problem solving process, tiered levels of intervention, and professional development. Included also is a list of myths about RTI implementation.

Pingle, R. L. & Cox, E. P. (2007). Leadership practices of elementary school principals. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, 4(2), 1–5. November 15, 2011, from
http://www.academicleadership.org/article/Leadership_Practices_of_Elementary_School_Principals

Relying on reports from principals and teachers, this research paper examines the leadership practices of principals from both academically successful and unsuccessful schools, and finds no significant difference between them. The analysis of the teachers’ report, however, does find statistically significant differences between the schools’ practices. The synopsis of the paper emphasizes the importance of the role of college preparation programs in helping principals to recognize and evaluate their leadership behaviors.

Prasse, D. P. (2006). Legal supports for problem-solving systems. Remedial and Special Education, 27(1), 7–15.

A useful summary of decades of federal law related to special education, this article provides a detailed overview of the legislative evolution of the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (1997 and 2004) and the response to intervention approach. Further topics include a look at the impetus behind reform efforts and a glimpse forward at what lies in store for the field.

Prewett, S., Mellard, D. F., Deshler, D. D., Allen, J., Alexander, R., & Stern, A. (2012). Response to intervention in middle schools: Practices and outcomes. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 27(3), 136–147.

This broad-based examination of the response to intervention model among middle-school students includes data points on a variety of issues related to successful implementation, including school culture and student diversity. A detailed discussion of the field methods involved, as well as thoughts regarding future research, are included.

Projects

Michigan Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Early Intervention Services. Michigan’s Integrated Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MiBLSi).

MiBLSi is a project that develops support systems and sustained implementation of a data-driven, problem solving model in elementary schools to help students become better readers. MiBLSi also promotes students’ social skills.

Books

Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This book presents an imaginative approach to change for the leaders of any organizations, including those having to do with education and business. Fullan describes current ideas and theories to accomplish goals and become an effective leader.

Online Resources

National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc. (2004). Response to Intervention (RTI) Project. Retrieved June 4, 2007, from
http://www.nasdse.org/Projects/ResponsetoInterventionRtIProject/tabid/411/Default.aspx

This page of NASDSE’s Website provides many links to information about RTI, including a downloadable overview of RTI, a PowerPoint presentation on RTI, a paper addressing myths about RTI, a how-to guide to implementing RTI, and information on how to order conference DVDs.

National Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/

This site––created by the American Institutes for Research in cooperation with researchers from the University of Kansas and Vanderbilt University and funded by OSEP––serves as a veritable treasure house of information regarding the RTI approach. Major topics include “Knowledge production,” Expert trainings,” and “Information dissemination.” The center’s self-described mission is “to provide technical assistance to states and districts and building the capacity of states to assist districts in implementing proven models for RTI/ EIS.”

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring http://www.studentprogress.org/

The National Center on Student Progress Monitoring is a national technical assistance and dissemination center funded by the Office of Special Education programs (OSEP). It provides assistance to states and districts who are interested in implementing progress monitoring in grades K-5.

Oregon Department of Education. (2005, May 19). Action planning: District-guided team action planning. Retrieved from http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?id=315

This document from a conference of the Oregon Department of Education helps brainstorm a plan to initiation implementing RTI in schools. The document provides a timeline of procedures, data-collection information, program-plan information, and implementation checks.

RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.

RTI Wire. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/rti/rti_wire.php

This Website gives a brief description of Response to Intervention and how to effectively put RTI into practice in schools. It also lists a number of free resources that can be downloaded from the Internet.

Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. (1992). Facilitative leadership: The imperative for change. Retrieved January 22, 2007, from http://www.sedl.org/change/facilitate/leaders.html#theneed

This document explores the various forms, characteristics, and sources of leadership and the ways though which leadership helps to facilitate change. It defines leadership functionally and offers a framework through which change can be carried out.

United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (n.d.) Tool kit on teaching and assessing students with disabilities: Responsiveness to intervention in the SLD determination process. Retrieved on June 11, 2008, from http://www.osepideasthatwork.org/toolkit/ta_responsiveness_intervention.asp

This site offers an overview of the Response to Intervention model, with an emphasis on identifying students who have specific learning disabilities as outlined in IDEA ’04. Information in terminology, differences in intervention at the various tiers, and the determination of responsiveness is also available.

Utah Personal Development Center. (2006, June 12–14). Heartland AEA—13 guiding questions for RTI implementation. Retrieved on November 15, 2011, from
http://spsy.uoregon.edu/Workshops/Heartland%20AEA%2013%20
Guiding%20Questions%20for%20RtI%20Implementation.pdf


This handout from a conference of the Utah Personnel Development Center poses a number of questions and then details the steps to answer them on three levels of RTI implementation: core, supplemental, and intensive.

Module: RTI: Mathematics

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Articles

Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, R., Scammacca, N., & Chavez, M. M. (2008). Mathematics intervention for first-and-second-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 29(1), 20–32.

This study highlights the effects of an additional fifteen minutes of early mathematics skills and concept instruction given to struggling first- and second-grade math students. Improvement was noted for the second graders, but no significant improvement was noted for the first. The implications of the study are discussed, as are suggestions for future undertakings.

Browder, D. M., Spooner, F., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Harris, A. A., & Wakeman, S. (2008). A meta-analysis on teaching mathematics to students with significant cognitive disabilities. Council for Exceptional Children, 74(4), 407–432.

This article identifies and explains the five key areas of mathematics instruction as defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The extent to which students with significant cognitive disabilities were exposed to, were able to learn, and in which way these concepts were taught to this population of learners form the focus of the study.

Byrd, E. S. (2011). Educating and involving parents in the response to intervention process: The school’s important role. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(3), pp. 32–39. Retrieved on August 2, 2011, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7749/is_201101/ai_n56828481/

This informative article lays out the basics of the response to intervention approach and makes a detailed case for schools to enlist parental involvement in the process. Featured are notes on ways to address parents in a way that is helpful and informative without being overwhelming, various strategies for educating parents about RTI and what it entails, and thoughts on creating a support group. A brief list of studies related to parental involvement is included.

Dexter, D. D., & Hughes, C. (n.d.). Progress monitoring within a response-to-intervention model. Retrieved on April 1, 2011, from http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/research/progress-monitoring-within-a-rti-model

This article defines and explains progress monitoring within an RTI model. Examples of common progress monitoring measures are discussed. Prior research and areas to be researched are also identified.

Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Kosty, D. B., Kurtz-Nelson, E., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., & Baker, S. K. (2016). Testing the efficacy of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention: A conceptual replication study. Exceptional Children, 83(1), 92–110.

In this article, the authors set out to evaluate the effectiveness of Tier 2 mathematics invention among kindergarten students. The results indicate highly promising effects. Included here is an overview of the study itself, as well as data indicating effect size and a discussion of future research implications and the necessity of expanded studies.

Freeman, B., & Crawford, L. (2008). Creating a middle school mathematics curriculum for English-language learners. Remedial and Special Education, 29(1), 9–19.

This article reviews a Web-based supplemental math curriculum for English language learners, K–12, who are struggling in mathematics. The curriculum is the Help with English Language Proficiency (HELP). The main foci of the article are key challenges and lessons learned.

Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Paulsen, K., & Bryant, J. D. (2005). The prevention, identification, and cognitive determinants of math difficulty. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 493–513.

This article outlines a group study done with 546 first graders to examine the efficacy of preventative tutoring in mathematics. Pre-treatment cognitive characteristics associated with math development were explored, and the prevalence and severity of mathematics disability were estimated. The tutoring was shown to decrease the prevalence of math disability.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Bryant, J. D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2007). Mathematics screening and progress monitoring at first grade: Implications for responsiveness to intervention. Council for Exceptional Children, 73 (3), 311–330.

This article highlights the need for—and some challenges associated with—RTI math prevention models. Some progress monitoring measures are identified and discussed. A tutoring intervention was implemented for students identified by the progress monitoring measures and their results are outlined herein.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hollenbeck, K. N. (2007). Extending responsiveness to intervention to mathematics at first and third grades. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(1), 13–24.

This article follows two studies on RTI in the area of mathematics. The article looks at a comprehensive mathematics curriculum in first grade and word problems in third grade. The article provides a description of the sample, an explanation of identification criteria, an overview of the intervention implemented, and the results to date.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Karns, K. (2001). Enhancing kindergarten children’s mathematical development: Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies. The Elementary School Journal, 101(5), 495–510.

This article follows a math intervention named Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies, or PALS. The strategy is explained, implemented, and the results are discussed.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2008). Mathematics disabilities in the primary grades: Seven principles of effective practice. Division for Learning Disabilities, 26(1), 1–2.

This article outlines the seven principles of effective practice in the area of mathematics. Examples are given for each practice.

Fuchs, L. S., Seethaler, P. M., Powell, S. R., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Fletcher, J. M. (2008). Effects of preventative tutoring on the mathematical problem solving of
third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. Exceptional Children, 74(2), 155–173.

As its title suggests, this article examines the efficacy of tutoring young students who struggle with mathematics. The authors find that, in fact, such supports have positive effects, and recommend their study (and the usefulness of introducing algebraic equations) to school administrators in the process of RTI implementation.

Gurganus, S. P. (2007). Math instruction for students with learning problems. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book is book designed for teacher in-service and pre-service teachers to build their confidence in working with students with learning disabilities in the area of mathematics. The book in aligned with national mathematics content and process standards and pre-k to 12 scopes.

Kroeger, S. D., & Kouche, B. (2006). Using peer-assisted learning strategies to increase response to intervention in inclusive middle math settings. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 38(5), 6–13.

The effect of implementation of a teaching and learning strategy, peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS) within a middle school math class is discussed. Identified benefits include positive influences of students attitude toward math, allowed teachers to cover a challenging curriculum while attending to a diverse set of skills within the classroom, supported extensive engagement, facilitated co teaching, and supported the use of appropriate social skills.

Kroesbergen, E. H., & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2003). Mathematics interventions for children with special educational needs: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 24 (2), 97–114.

This useful resource is a review of fifty-eight studies of math interventions in three domains: preparatory mathematics, basic skills, and problem solving, used with elementary students who were identified as having special needs. Basic skills interventions made up the majority of the studies and showed the greatest effectiveness. Mediated instruction was shown to be less effective than either direct instruction or self-instruction.

Seethaler, P. M., & Fuchs, L. S. (2010). The predictive utility of kindergarten screening for math difficulties. Council for Exceptional Children, 77(1), 37–59.

This research study examines the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of screening measures for students experiencing difficulty in mathematics. Nearly two hundred students were assessed in the areas of number sense and computational fluency.

Ysseldyke, J., Burns, M.K., Scholin, S. E., & Parker, D. C. (2010). Instructionally valid assessment within response to intervention. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 42(4), 54–61.

This article discusses the importance of assessment, how to collect assessment data, and what to do with it. Emphasis is on making decisions in an RTI model framework, based on information collected with assessments.

Books

Jayanthi, M., Gersten, R., Baker, S. (2008). Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities or difficulty learning mathematics: A guide for teachers. Portsmouth,
NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.

This book outlines a number of instructional practices for teaching math to K–12 students with learning disabilities. Recommendations are also provided for student who struggle in math but who do not have an identified disability.

Newman-Gonchar, R., Clarke, B., & Gersten, R. (2009). A summary of nine key studies: Multi-tier intervention and response to interventions for students struggling in mathematics. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.

This summary of research studies examines the utilization of multi-tier intervention and RTI with students in the first, second, and third grades who are struggling with mathematics. Ideas for using RTI to increase computational fluency and quick retrieval of math facts are also reviewed.

Reiss, J. (2008). 102 content strategies for English language learners: Teaching for academic success in grades 3–12. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

This textbook features 102 concise, classroom-tested strategies to support academic success of English language learners in the classroom. Each strategy contains guidelines for practice, objectives, rationales, activities, assignments, concepts, instructions, examples, and illustrations.

Online Resources

Busch, T., Hall, T., & Stecker, P. (2006, July 13 & 14). Using curriculum-based measurement for progress monitoring in math. PowerPoint slides. Retrieved on April 1, 2011, from
http://www.studentprogress.org/summer_institute/rti/
UsingCBMProgressMonitoringMath/UsingCBMPMMath_powerpoint.ppt


In these useful and informative slides, curriculum-based measurement is described and the rationale behind its usefulness is laid out. Examples are given of what it looks like and how to use the information it provides in the context of mathematics.

Center on Instruction. (2009, June 3). An introduction to progress monitoring in mathematics. PowerPoint slides. Retrieved on April 1, 2011, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Progress%20Monitoring%20PPT%20FINAL%2Eppt

This PowerPoint presentation provides information about progress monitoring. Common techniques and mishaps are explored, as are applications for progress monitoring in elementary and secondary grades.

Clarke, C., & Ramirez, A. (2009, May 21). Math pathways & pitfalls: jump-starting effective and equitable instruction. Retrieved on April 1, 2011, from http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/3660

This Webinar outlines the instructional strategies used in math pathways and pitfalls to support sophisticated mathematical reasoning and academic language. Four key strategies are provided for teachers.

Dragoo, K. (2013, January). NICHCY structured abstract no. 84: Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of instructional components. Retrieved on January 28, 2013, from http://nichcy.org/research/summaries/abstract84

This structured abstract of an article that appeared in the Review of Educational Research offers an accessible breakdown of the authors’ research into mathematics instructional components for students with exceptional learning needs. The summation includes the categories of interventions as employed by the study’s authors, as well as a brief overview of the statistical effect of the intervention, the research findings, and recommendations for future research.

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2008, June 19). Implementing RTI in mathematics. Retrieved on April 1, 2011, from http://www.ncldtalks.org/content/interview/detail/1982/

In this transcribed interview, Amanda VanDerHeyden and David Allsopp answer various questions from a selection of people about implementing RTI in the area of mathematics. Some topics included are suggestions for screeners, application in regular education classroom, and a parent question about how to help her child with math.

RTI Action Network http://www.rtinetwork.org/

A program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, the Website of the RTI Action Network offers a plentitude of advice, support, and resources for the effective design and implementation of the response to intervention approach. From the very first steps of RTI development, through the evaluation and refinement of implemented plans, the RTI Action Network is a place where school leaders and instructors can look for models, support, and assistance. Besides its wealth of information and links, the Website allows visitors to connect with one another to share their own experiences and advice on RTI implementation and beyond.

Student Progress Monitoring. (n.d.). CBM presentation materials handouts 1–24; Case studies; Appendix A—CBM materials; Appendix B —CBM research. Retrieved on April 1, 2011, from
http://www.studentprogress.org/summer_institute/rti/
UsingCBMProgressMonitoringMath/UsingCBMPMMath_handouts.doc


A packet of curriculum-based measurement materials for fifth- and sixth-grade math students. Three tests are provided in each of the following areas; grade concepts and applications, number identification, quantity discrimination, and missing numbers. An explanation of the turkey method, case studies, and class reports are also on hand.

VanDerHeyden, A. (n.d.). RTI and math instruction: Using RTI to improve learning in mathematics. Retrieved on April 1, 2011, from http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/why/rtiandmath?tmpl=component&print=1

This resource briefly overviews RTI and why it should be used in mathematics. The questions of how to determine who needs mathematics intervention, what type they need, and whether the chosen intervention is working are also assessed and outlined. The article concludes with a brief discussion about fidelity and its importance.

Module: School Counselors: Facilitating Transitions for Students with Disabilities from High School to Post-School Settings

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Articles and Books

Durodoye, B. A., Combes, B. H., & Bryant, R. M. (2004). Counselor intervention in the post-secondary planning of African American students with learning disabilities. Professional School Counseling, 7(3), 133–140.

This article addresses the awareness and flexibility required of school counselors who work with African American students with learning disabilities as they plan to transition from high school to post-secondary education. Appropriate interventions for ethnically diverse students are also discussed.

Gillis, L. L. (2006). Effective transition services for students with disabilities: Examining the roles of building principals and school counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 4(25). Retrieved August 3, 2007, from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v4n25.pdf

This article emphasizes the important roles building-level administrators and school counselors play in ensuring that students with disabilities are included in the many opportunities available to secondary students. It stresses the importance of the collaborative effort between students, parents, teachers, counselors, and principals.

Kosine, N. (December 16, 2005). Effective college transition planning for students with learning disabilities: What does the research tell us? (Center for School Counseling Outcome Research). School Counseling Research Brief 3.4.

This research brief reviews the implications of current research on transition procedures for students who have learning disabilities and who wish to move into post-secondary education. It also outlines a three-year program developed at the University of Minnesota that began in the students’ junior year of high school and continued through their first year of post-secondary education.

Luft, P., Brown, C. M., & Sutherin, L. J. (2007). Are you and your students bored with the benchmarks? Sinking under the standards? Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(6), 39–46.

This article describes and provides supporting research for the importance of incorporating students’ individual transition plans into daily instructional practices. It argues that, because transition plans address the individuals’ interests, needs, and preferences, using these plans will make instruction relevant to students’ lives. Therefore, students are more likely to be motivated and engaged while using authentic problem-solving strategies. The article offers many examples and other resources.

Milsom, A. M., & Hartley, M. T. (2005). Assisting students with learning disabilities transitioning to college: What school counselors should know. Professional School Counseling, 8(5), 436–441.

This article emphasizes the importance of the role of the school counselor in the successful transition to post-secondary education by high school students with learning disabilities. The authors examine the role of the counselor as an advocate, collaborator, and direct-service provider, and they review a sample implementation plan for the transition process.

Myers, H. N. F. (2005). How elementary school counselors can meet the needs of students with disabilities. Professional School Counseling, 8(5), 442–450.

This article presents the results of a study examining how elementary-school counselors meet the personal and social needs of students with disabilities. The study follows the ASCA National Model’s guidelines for meeting the diverse needs of all students. That is, the counselors work toward collaboration, serving in leadership roles, advocating for students, and using a variety of strategies to meet students’ needs.

Online Resources

College & Career Readiness & Success Center http://www.ccrscenter.org/

The College and Career Readiness and Success Center develops tools and products based on the latest practices and information related to college and career readiness and success issues. This center provides publications, reports, and other resources searchable by the Hot Topics drop-down menu of the Resource Database. Such Hot Topics include Data-Driven Decision Making and School Improvement as well as transition in the areas of middle school to high school, high school to college, high school to career, and college to career.

Division on Career Development and Transition http://community.cec.sped.org/dcdt/home

An organization whose goal is to provide information and assistance to increase efforts at aiding individuals with disabilities in career development and the transition to the world of work, DCDT offers resources on transition in practice, research articles, and overviews of relevant state and federal agencies, among much more.

Institute of Education Sciences. (2009, September). Helping students navigate the path to college: What high schools can do. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/PracticeGuide/higher_ed_pg_091509.pdf

Among the most persistent problems in education are the barriers to higher education that exist for various groups of students, including those with disabilities. In response, the Institute of Education Sciences has produced this guide to help schools ameliorate many of these barriers. A panel of experts presents evidence-based recommendations on curricula, assessments, and assistance for families, among many others. Suggestions for how to carry out the recommendations include a wealth of helpful information.

National College Transition Network http://ici2.umn.edu/ntn

The National College Transition Network (NCTN) provides information and resources to more effectively facilitate transitions to college and career, especially among non-traditional students, veterans, and others who might tend to fall through the cracks. Visitors here will find information on promising practices, increased employment opportunities and engagement, professional development, and much more.

National Parent Center on Transition and Employment http://www.pacer.org/transition/

An outgrowth of the PACER Center, the National Parent Center on Transition and Employment offers an extensive array of resources for visitors that include video series, a resource library, an online learning center complete with information on legal rights for students and workers, and a lot more.

National Technical Assistance Center on Transition http://www.transitionta.org/

Dedicated to assisting state and local education agencies to facilitate greater and more efficient secondary transition, NTACT offers visitors to its online home a wide variety of resources and information, including transition planning resources, practice guides and data tools, practices and programs to increase the likelihood post-school success, among much else.

Occupational Information Network https://www.onetonline.org/

A search engine and occupational skills catalogue available for use by public employment agencies, jobseekers, teachers, and businesses, O*Net describes itself as “the nation’s primary source of occupational information.” Created as a replacement for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (established in 1939), the Occupational Information Network cross-references job descriptions with the skills and attributes needed to carry out those occupations.

Module: School Nurses: Roles and Responsibilities in the School Setting

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Articles

Black, S. (2003). Prescription for learning: School nurses play a key role in student achievement—Or could, if there were enough of them. American School Board Journal, 190(3).

This article begins with a general overview of the role and importance of the school nurse in promoting children’s health and, therefore, their education. It then continues to provide statistics from the National Association of School Nurses on the different student-to-nurse ratios throughout the country. To encourage support for hiring more school nurses, the article also includes a model for a comprehensive school health program (provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and details on Missouri’s three-tier plan to improve student health services. Researchers cited in the article stated that a 750:1 student-to-nurse ratio is ideal.

Health and Health Care in Schools. (2003, June). The impact of FERPA and HIPAA on privacy protections for health information at school: Questions from readers. Retrieved September 20, 2005, from http://www.healthinschools.org/static/ejournal/2003/june_print.aspx

This journal supplement offers a question-and-answer format provided by the Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, covering several topics related to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy regulations and to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Dialogues are provided on categories including FERPA/HIPAA interface, sharing immunization information according to FERPA and HIPAA, FERPA and “legitimate educational interests,” the definition of a “HIPAA transaction,” and other miscellaneous questions.

Moses, M., Gilchrest, C., Schwab, N. C. (2005, February). Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act: Determining eligibility and implications for school districts. The Journal of School Nursing, 21(1), 48–58.

In this article, the authors examine the legal and practical implications of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act for school districts dealing with students with chronic health conditions. Which students are eligible under the statute? What are the relevant legal precedents? Besides answer these questions, the authors suggest alternatives means through which to meet the needs of students whose conditions do not fall under Section 504.

Smolkin, Rachel. (2003). Rx for school nursing: Some districts are trying creative approaches to fill critical nursing needs. School Administrator, January 2003. Retrieved September 20, 2005, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JSD/is_1_60/ai_95954344

The article discusses reasons and solutions for the growing lack of school nurses. According to the article, budgetary problems, an insufficient number of nurses, and more complex student health concerns are some of the reasons why school leaders are having to use creative means to provide their students with healthcare services. Some of the recommendations include training school leaders to give out medicines, utilizing health assistants who do not have nursing licenses, enticing retired nurses to return to schools part-time, soliciting local medical students to volunteer services, and taking advantage of funding and programs provided by a variety of local health agencies and national health organizations.

Online Resources

American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org/ The American Diabetes Association Website provides a wealth of information on diabetes.

Information includes everything from diabetes prevention to nutrition and recipes. There are sections for audiences such as parents and kids, or health professionals and scientists.

Health, Mental Health and Safety Guidelines for Schools http://www.nationalguidelines.org

The Website provides information on various health and mental health service topics, including student assistance teams, student access to a certified school nurse, staff trained for emergencies, health-related case management, individualized health services plans, and protocols for special medical procedures, among others. For each category, the Website includes an explanation, a rationale, commentary, references, and related guidelines.

KidSource http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/parenting.disab.all.4.1.html

The Website features an extensive list of readings and resources related to children with special needs. The list is divided into categories for easy reference; topics on the site include general parent readings; infant, toddler, and early intervention services; parent/ professional partnership; siblings and grandparents; special education and related services, print materials by specific disability; and related magazines and newsletters. The site also posts a navigation column with links to the National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) articles and information, site content articles, forums, and related articles.

National Association of School Nurses http://www.nasn.org

The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) states its purpose is to “advance the delivery of professional school health services to promote optimal health and learning in students.” Its Website provides issue briefs, position statements, definitions of roles, publications, and various resource links related to school nursing. The association hosts an active online community through its site, and visitors can find updated information on certification, legislations, grants and awards, state affiliate organizations, and discussion lists. A site map is available to help visitors sort through the many topics and categories covered on the site.

National Board for Certification of School Nurses http://www.nbcsn.com/

NBCSN describes itself as “an independently incorporated organization established for the purpose of developing and implementing the voluntary certification process of school nurses…[working] in collaboration with the National Association of School Nurses” to “create uniformity in nursing certification and to increase public awareness of the value of quality certification to healthcare” The organizations Website is a repository of information related to certification and credentialing and nursing standards. It also offers an online newsletter and a member’s section.

National Mental Health Association http://www.nmha.org

NMHA, the country’s oldest and largest nonprofit organization addressing all aspects of mental health and mental illness according to its Website, posts a variety of information online. The Website features news; how to find local affiliates and mental health professionals; links to treatment, resources, and support groups; FAQs and answers; the NMHA newsletter, and also tips for parents. Also included on the site, sections on children and family advocacy and fact sheets on children’s mental health offer useful research and information for caregivers.

School Health Alert http://www.schoolnurse.com

The Internet version of the school-health publication School Health Alert, Schoolnurse.com features articles, top research topics, and a variety of links on its homepage. Visitors can find information on medical supplies, publications, and e-learning, and they can also explore the site’s library, bookstore, forum, and fun-stuff page, in addition to research. By selecting “School Nurse Associations” on the Links page, visitors can connect to national and state association Websites for more information on each state’s nursing requirements.

United Cerebral Palsy http://www.ucp.org/

United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a nationwide organization that disseminates information on cerebral palsy. The Website features a section titled “National News, Topics & Events,” which allows visitors to view various articles regarding cerebral palsy issues across the nation. The Website has numerous links on education, employment, health and wellness, housing, parenting and families, product and services, transportation or travel.

Parent informational Websites:

Links to other professional roles at IEP meetings:

Module: Secondary Reading Instruction (Part 1): Teaching Vocabulary and Comprehension in the Content Areas

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Articles

Beach, K. D., Sanchez, V., Flynn, L. J., & O’Connor, R. R. (2015). Teaching academic vocabulary to adolescents with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(1), 36–44.

In this journal article, the authors overview the importance of teaching academic vocabulary and provide a detailed five-step process for doing so. In addition, the authors cover word selection, the presentation of words in meaningful contexts, and sentence writing opportunities. A number of helpful sample classroom scripts and activities are also included.

Capin, P., & Vaughn, S. (2017). Improving reading and social studies learning for secondary students with reading disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 249–261.

This article examines the effect on student literacy outcomes of secondary content-area subjects in which the method of instruction tends to rely heavily on sources of information other than text. To help promote better reading comprehension, the authors recommend the use of Promoting Adolescents’ Comprehension of Text (PACT) and collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as effective methods of developing reading comprehension skills while also addressing the need to build content knowledge.

Kennedy, M. J., Lloyd, J. W., Cole, M. T., & Ely, E. (2012). Specially designed vocabulary instruction: What does high quality instruction look like? Retrieved on September 10, 2012, from http://tecplus.org/articles/article/1

The authors of this article describe and illustrate a number of research-validated methods for teaching vocabulary across content areas. Included is information on vocabulary in mathematics and science instruction, a detailed explanation of the Vocabulary Planning Framework (VPF) method, and a number of informative movie clips illustrating phonological awareness instruction and word learning strategies, among other topics of interest.

Kroeger, S. D., Burton, C., & Preston, C. (2009). Integrating evidence-based practices in middle science reading. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 6–15. Retrievedon July 25, 2012, from http://cec.metapress.com/content/lnj7p46v22078545/fulltext.pdf

This article about improving reading comprehension in science classes examines in detail a modified version of the PALS strategy, PALSscience. The authors include notes on identifying main-idea statements, overseeing peer mediation, and creating “integrity checklists” to assess implementation fidelity.

Roberts, C. A., Leko, M. M., & Wilkerson, K. L. (2013). New directions in reading instruction for adolescents with significant cognitive disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 34(5), 305–317.

This review of the research into the reading instruction targeted at adolescents with disabilities concludes that many classrooms are not yet taking significant advantage of recent innovations in the field, though some are now beginning to do so. On hand here are notes on the current state of reading instruction among young people with cognitive disabilities and a discussion of how instruction can be made more comprehensive and brought into greater alignment with current recommendations issued from the field of adolescent literacy.

Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2008). Teaching disciplinary literacy to adolescents: Rethinking content-area literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 40–59. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E69AD5B4-7C7C-4662-9F59-F3BFA9933FA0/0/ShanahanArticle061909.pdf

This article examines the efficacy of the long-practiced “every teacher a teacher of reading teacher” approach across content areas. The authors discover that the methods used to teach comprehension vary widely depending on the nature of the content at hand and how individual instructors themselves approach and comprehend that subject matter. Recommendations for reading strategies to improve content-area literacy are included.

Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Schnakenberg, J. B., Fall, A. M., Vaughn, M. g., & Wexler, J. (2015). Improving reading comprehension for high school students with disabilities: Effects for comprehension and school retention. Exceptional Children, 82(1), 117–131.

This study follows a group of students through two years of reading comprehension instruction, and finds that extensive interventions for high school students not only produce better reading outcomes but also help to ameliorate the drop-out rates among students most at risk of leaving school early.

Books

Irvin, J. L., Buehl, D. R., & Klemp, R. M. (2007). Reading and the high school student. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishing.

This book is for a wide variety of instructors, administrators, and educators involved in improving reading outcomes for secondary students. At hand are discussions of basic strategies and techniques, as well as ways to spot ineffective learning, methods for assisting struggling readers, and tips for evaluating content-area textbooks, among much else.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012). Improving adolescent literacy. Upper Saddle River,NJ: Pearson Publishing.

This book-length work examines methods for improving secondary reading for students across content-areas. Included are discussions about the effective promotion of comprehension, writing to learn with secondary students, and assessments and high-stakes testing.

Online Resources

Adler, C. R. (2001). Seven strategies to teach students text comprehension. Retrieved on September 18, 2012, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3479/

These briefly outlined reading strategies include downloadable examples of various kinds of graphic organizers (and a link to more). Also on hand are generating questions, recognizing story structure, summarizing, and monitoring comprehension.

Greenleaf, C., & Brown, W. (2007). Reading science for understanding in middle and high school. SchoolsMovingUp Webinar. Retrieved on July 25, 2012, from http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/1532

In this Webinar, two experts on content-area reading discuss the application of “Reading Apprenticeship instructional framework,” an evidence-based approach designed to improve reading outcomes for students in middle and high school.

Heibert, E. (2007). Word lists: Choices and uses. Schools Moving Up Webinar. Retrieved on July 25, 2012, from http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/1786

In this Webinar, an adjunct professor at the University of California at Berkeley and facilitator of the California Vocabulary Forum talks about the utility of vocabulary lists in reading and vocabulary instruction across ability levels.

International Reading Association & National Council of Teachers of English. (2012).Using QARs to develop comprehension and reflective reading habits. Read Write Think lesson plan. Retrieved on July 24, 2012, from http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/using-qars-develop-comprehension-232.html

This detailed lesson plan on comprehension and reading habits includes day-by-day breakdowns for instructors, student objectives, notes on demonstration strategies, and ideas for extending the lesson. Be sure to click through the tabs for a useful section of related resources, among much else.

Maryland Public Television. (2003). Monitoring comprehension. Retrieved on July 25,2012, from http://www.thinkport.org/a4092856-945a-4952-aceb-9f606e84af36.asset

This short document, produced by Maryland Public Television, includes a discussion of reading comprehension, specifically a student’s ability to monitor his or her own comprehension while reading. Also on hand is a short article about Thomas Edison and an exercise that teachers can use to gauge whether their students have comprehended information about the famous inventor.

Websites

TextProject http://textproject.org

This Website dedicated to improved reading instruction for new and struggling readers offers a wealth of resources and materials, including an online library, materials for teacher support, and the latest research on evidence-based practices and programs, among much else.

Module: Secondary Reading Instruction (Part 2): Deepening Middle School Content-Area Learning with Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies

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Articles

Beach, K. D., Sanchez, V., Flynn, L. J., & O’Connor, R. R. (2015). Teaching academic vocabulary to adolescents with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(1), 36–44.

In this journal article, the authors overview the importance of teaching academic vocabulary and provide a detailed five-step process for doing so. In addition, the authors cover word selection, the presentation of words in meaningful contexts, and sentence writing opportunities. A number of helpful sample classroom scripts and activities are also included.

Swanson, E., & Wexler, J. (2017). Selecting appropriate text for adolescents with disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(3), 160–167.

Here the authors detail strategies for improving access to the general education curriculum via reading for students with disabilities. Overviewed is the use of quantitative and qualitative information, as well as notes on how to select text appropriate to a given student’s learning characteristics.

Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Schnakenberg, J. B., Fall, A. M., Vaughn, M. g., & Wexler, J. (2015). Improving reading comprehension for high school students with disabilities: Effects for comprehension and school retention. Exceptional Children, 82(1), 117–131.

This study follows a group of students through two years of reading comprehension instruction, and finds that extensive interventions for high school students not only produce better reading outcomes but also help to ameliorate the drop-out rates among students most at risk of leaving school early.

Online Resources

AUSSIE, NYCDOE. (2011). A beginner’s guide to text complexity. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/A6EB078F-25AF-4AC1-8C2E-B16CC28BD47F/0/Beginnersguidetotextcomplexity_FINAL_72811.docx

Developed by the New York City Department of Education Secondary Literacy Pilot, this informative guide offers an overview of text complexity and puts special focus on CCSS 10: Range of Reading Level and Text Complexity. Included here is a working definition of text complexity, as well as a three-part model for measuring it, qualitative factors for describing complexity, and examples of text complexity from actual books and texts, among much else.

Bradley, D., McGuire, B., McGuire, B., Salvatore, A. (2008). Constructing text-based arguments about social issues. Retrieved from http://www.doe.k12.de.us/commoncore/ela/files/writing/GRADE-8_ARGUMENTATION_Sep.pdf

Created in cooperation with the University of Delaware and the Delaware Department of Education, this downloadable module includes information on creating sound argumentative essays on socially important topics. On hand here are details and notes on the selection of relevant details (and the exclusion of irrelevant ones), pre- and post-assessment activities, a text-based writing rubric, and templates for both introductions and conclusions

Lawrence, J. F., White, C., & Snow, C. E. (2010). The words students need. Educational Leadership, 68(2), 23–26. Retrieved from http://wg.serpmedia.org/download_files_misc/the_words_students_need.pdf

This brief but helpful resource is all about the importance of vocabulary instruction at the middle school level. The authors stress the importance of this context-rich vocabulary instruction and suggest the importance of going beyond dictionary definitions by allowing students repeated exposure to important vocabulary words and room to experiment with their use.

Snow, C., & O’Connor, C. (2013). Close reading and far-reaching classroom discussion: Fostering a vital connection. Retrieved from https://www.literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/where-we-stand/close-reading-policy-brief.pdf

This policy brief from the Literacy Research Panel of the International Reading Association offers a more nuanced take on the emphasis on close reading in the CCSS. Included here is an overview of the most common objections to close reading, a reminder about the critical necessity of background knowledge to any close reading exercise, and a suggestion for future instructional reform in which close reading is a tool for achieving deeper understanding of complex ideas and histories rather than an end in and of itself.

National Institute for Literacy & National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2007). What content-area teachers should know about adolescent literacy. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/adolescent_literacy07.pdf

One of the most pressing challenges of secondary literacy instruction is for teachers to understand how and why adolescent readers read the way they do. This resource sets out to answer many of these questions, including information on how “good” readers engage a text, how instruction can improve reading fluency, and detailed notes on vocabulary and comprehension instruction, in addition to much more.

Text Dependent Questions and the CCSS. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://ccss.mysdhc.org/EducatorFiles/Part%202%20- %20Text%20Dependent%20Questions%20and%20the%20CCSS%5B1%5D.pdf

Websites

Achieve the Core http://www.achievethecore.org/ hosts:
• Quantitative and qualitative tools for measuring text complexity.
• Sample lessons applying literacy standards in English language arts, history/social studies,
and science.
• Research and other articles on text complexity.
• Professional development modules and courses related to the Common Core State Standards.
.
This Website—home of a non-profit organization founded by the lead writers of the CCSS—offers a wealth of information and tools for those who wish to improve the implementation of the Common Core. Visitors will find sample lessons and student work samples, as well as curricular tools, assessment questions, and resources for professional development, among much, much more.

Florida Center for Reading Research http://www.fcrr.org

Headquartered at Florida State University, the FCRR offers online tools and resources for teachers and researchers, including information on differentiating instruction, instructional routines, literacy resources, and questions to guide instruction.

Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts http://www.meadowscenter.org/vgc/

The Vaughn Gross Center is the online home for a vast array of resources for professional development. Visitors will find links to current projects, an expansive materials list (helpfully arranged by topic, resource type, and audience), notes on upcoming events, and much more.

Module: Secondary Transition: Helping Students with Disabilities Plan for Post-High School Settings

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Articles

Bartholomew, A., Papay, C., McConnell, A., & Cease-Cook, J. (2015). Embedding secondary transition in the Common Core State Standards. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(6), 329–335.

In this article, the authors propose a pair of approaches designed to help students with disabilities to make the transition from secondary education. Included here is an overview of the Common Core State Standards, as well as detailed descriptions of the proposed approaches, suggestions for further research, and much more.

Cease-Cook, J., Fowler, C., & Test, D. W. (2015). Strategies for creating work-based learning experiences in schools for secondary students with disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(6), 352–358.

Here the authors tackle the issue of ensuring that students with disabilities receive adequate preparation for future employment before transitioning from secondary education. The article includes notes on career exploration, job shadowing, work sampling, and a timetable for implementing work-based learning experiences.

Gothberg, J. E., Peterson, L. Y., Peak, M., Sedaghat, J. M. (2015). Successful transitions of students with disabilities to 21st-Century college and careers: Using triangulation and gap analysis to address nonacademic skills. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(6), 344–351.

There is more to secondary transition than effective academic instruction. Also important are non-academic skills, which the authors of this journal article overview here. Included is information on TGAP, the Triangulated Gap Analysis Tool, “designed to assist educators, students, and IEP teams to create annual identify and create annual goals” to bridge the gap between academic and non-academic skills and thus improve the likelihood of a successful transition, among much else.

Kleinert, H. L., Miracle, S. A., & Sheppard-Jones, K. (2007). Including students with moderate and severe disabilities in extracurricular and community recreation activities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(6), 33–38.

This article reports the results of a statewide survey to determine the extent to which students with certain kinds of disabilities take part in activities outside the school setting. Included are the results of that survey, as well as discussions of the implications of the findings for those who wish to increase the rate of student participation and the kinds of accommodations and support necessary to potentially achieve those levels.

Kohler, P. D., & Field, S. (2003). Transition-focused education: Foundation for the future. Journal of Special Education, 37, 174–183. Retrieved on May 22, 2013, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ785945.pdf

Here the authors examine the relatively recent trend toward improved transition services for students with disabilities. Focusing on five specific areas—including family involvement and the way in which an emphasis on said services is reshaping special education programs—they layout an informative overview of the current state of transition in today’s schools.

National Post-School Outcomes Center & National Secondary Technical Assistance Center. (2015, December). Predictor implementation: School/district self-assessment. Retrieved on December 9, 2013, from http://www.transitionta.org/sites/default/files/Predictor_Self-Assessment2.0.pdf

This checklist produced by the NSTTAC and the National Post-School Outcomes Center is designed to provide a tool by which schools and school districts can sound out the effectiveness of their programs in producing positive post-school outcomes. Here are items on parental involvement, interagency collaboration, student self-advocacy, and much more.

Newman, L. A., Madaus, J. W., & Javitz, H. S. (2016). Effect of transition planning on postsecondary support receipt by students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 82(4), 497–514.

This article provides information about the effectiveness of transition practices in helping students with disabilities to secure supports and services in post-secondary settings. In addition to a detailed overview of the study methods themselves, the authors answer a number of research-related questions and conclude that, indeed, carefully planned secondary transition practices do help students to locate and acquire the supports and services available at colleges and universities.

Papay, C., Unger, D. D., Williams-Diehm, K., & Mitchell, V. (2015). Begin with the end in mind: Infusing transition planning and instruction into elementary classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(6), 310–318.

In this article, the authors recommend that transition planning begin as early as the elementary grades, citing a research base on self-determination that goes back twenty-five years. Readers will find information on career awareness and development, community based instruction, and family involvement. Included also are strategies for incorporating self-determination instruction into elementary classrooms.

Povenmire-Kirk, T. C., Bethune, L. K., Alverson, C. Y., & Kahn, L. G. (2015). A journey, not a destination: Developing cultural competence in secondary transition. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(6), 319–328.

Here the authors overview the importance of cultural competence as one component of the transition process. Their article defines and evaluates the concept, offering examples of cultural conflicts along with suggestions for effective solutions, as well as specific instances in which variations in cultural values might lead to avoidable misunderstandings.

Rowe, D. A., Mazzotti, V. L., Hirano, K., & Alverson, C. Y. (2015). Assessing transition skills in the 21st Century. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 47(6), 301–309.

This overview of transition assessment includes information on the selection of appropriate assessments, assessment preparation and execution, and meaningful analyses of assessment results. A list of online resources for instructions, as well as a ready made assessment review checklist are helpful additions.

Books

Hughes, C., & Carter, E. (2012). The new transition handbook: Strategies high school teacher use that work! Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

This handy resource comprises a number of effective transition strategies arranged by sphere—school, employment, social life—and includes checklists and other easy-to-access resources of use to anyone interested in helping students to make the move from secondary education to what comes next.

Kochhar-Bryant, C. A., Shaw, S., & Izzo, M. (2009). What every teacher should know about transition and IDEA 2004. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

This brief but ambitious work lays out a revised version of transition services, tying them closely to federally mandated education regulations and standards-based instruction. Included here is the authors’ overview of the required performance summary required for students with individual education programs (IEPs).

Kohler, P. D. (1998). Implementing a transition perspective of education: A comprehensive approach to planning and delivering secondary education and transition services. In F. R. Rusch and J. Chadsey (Eds.) Beyond high school: Transition from school to work, pp. 179–205.

As transition services take on increasing importance, more and more effort is spent to create a comprehensive approach in which the transition from secondary education is not something that “just happens” at the end of a student’s time in school. In this chapter, the author overviews just such a vision of secondary education in which transition is an essential and informative element throughout the four years of instruction.

Sitlington, P. L., Neubert, D. A., & Clark, G. M. (2010). Transition education and services for students with disabilities (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Written for teachers and teachers-in-training, this informative book overviews transition services as they stood at the time of publication and lays out also a vision of those services as a more comprehensive standards-based approach to education and eventually professional and community life. An emphasis on the skills necessary to take a fuller and more meaningful role in personal and civic interactions is found throughout.

Online Resources

Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Education, Training and Technical Assistance Centers. (2008). I’m determined! Understanding and preparing for my IEP. Retrieved on April 11, 2013, from http://www.imdetermined.org/files_resources/105/im_
determined_understanding_and_preparing_for_my_iep.pdf


Developed by the Virginia state department of education, this document is designed to help students understand—and answer questions related to—their own individual education programs (IEPs). Students are prompted to examine and think about the kinds of accommodations they feel might be necessary, what their postsecondary goals might be, and what type of career might best suit their preferences and special skills, among much else.

Division on Career Development and Transition. (2000, March). Transition-related planning, instruction, and service responsibilities for secondary special educators. DCDT Fact Sheet. Retrieved on May 22, 2013, from http://homepages.wmich.edu/~kohlerp/pdf/DCDT%20Fact%20SheetTeacher-final.pdf

This brief but informative factsheet produced by the Division on Career Development and Transition lists a number of what it describes as promising transition-related programs and services indicated by recent research. Among these is a push to allow students to participate in the development of their individual education programs (IEPs) and an emphasis on teaching academic in a way that will be more relevant to most students’ real-world experiences, among much else.

Division on Career Development and Transition. (2000, March). Transition specialist competencies. DCDT Fact Sheet. Retrieved on May 22, 2013, from http://www.ehhs.kent.edu/cite/ttw/trans_competencies.pdf

What do transition specialists do and what skills do they need to effectively carry out that role? This user-friendly factsheet from the Division on Career Development and Transition attempts to answer those questions, including information on knowledge of and skills related to the history and philosophy behind special education, skills and knowledge having to do with classroom assessment and evaluation, and those involving communication and collaborative relationships, among much else.

National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability. (n.d.). Guideposts for success (2nd ed.). Retrieved on April 15, 2013, from http://www.ncwd-youth.info/sites/default/files/page/2009/02/guideposts_0.pdf

Inasmuch as special education students and students with disabilities in general tend to drop out of school at much higher rates than do their non-disabled peers, the need for transition services for those students seems especially clear. This useful guide created by the National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability overviews the need for expanded and improved transition services and seeks to create “guideposts” for achieving that goal. These include an emphasis on career preparation and real-world experiences, and efforts to connect students to activities and programs outside of school.

State of New Jersey Department of Education. (2012). Transition from school to adult life. Dare to Dream Student Leadership Conference [videos]. Retrieved on April 15, 2013, from http://www.state.nj.us/education/specialed/transition/video/

The state of New Jersey’s Dare to Dream Student Leadership conferences are designed to underscore the increasing importance of student self-advocacy and successful transitions to post-school life. Visitors to this resource will find videos of the keynote addresses offered by a number of exceptional students.

Test, D. W., Fowler, C. H., Cease-Cook, J., & Bartholomew, A. (2011). College and career ready standards and secondary transition planning for students with disabilities: 101. Retrieved on March 16, 2017, from https://frcd.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/College_and_Career_Readiness101.FINAL2_.pdf

Though the transition from secondary education to post-secondary school or career life is fraught for many students, it is especially so for students with disabilities, who have higher dropout rates than do their nondisabled peers. This comprehensive work from the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center overviews a number of issues related to improved transition services for students with special needs. Included here is a look at what the various states are doing to improve those services, as well as examples of how transition skills can be infused into existing college and career-ready standards.

Test, D. W., Fowler, C. H., & Scroggins, L. C. (2012, October). Tiered interventions and secondary transition planning for students with disabilities: 101. Retrieved on March 16, 2017, from
http://www.pepnet.org/sites/default/files/summit2014/Tiered%20Interventions%20and%20Secondary%20Transition.pdf

How can tiered interventions help improve transition services for students with disabilities? This informative resource published by the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center seeks to answer that question. Here, the authors overview a plan for a tiered plan to prepare students for life after school. A list of additional resources is also on hand.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. (2017). A transition guide to postsecondary education and employment for students with disabilities. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/transition/products/postsecondary-transition-guide-2017.pdf

This informative resource includes an overview of the secondary transition services and requirements outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Readers will find details and information about student-led planning, employment training options, and programs to help prepare students with disabilities for a successful transition to life after secondary school, among much else.

Valentine, J. C., Hirschy, A. S., Bremer, C. D., Novillo, W., Castellano, M., & Banister, A. (2009, September). Systematic reviews of research: Postsecondary transitions: Identifying effective models and practices. Retrieved on April 18, 2013, from http://nrccte.education.louisville.edu/UserFiles/File/pubs/Valentine_Postsecondary_Transitions.pdf

Published by the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education, this comprehensive resource sets out to overview—and evaluate—a number of models and practices related to secondary transitions. Included here is an investigation of theoretical frameworks developed by researchers, a detailed literature review, and an overview of related research questions, among much else.

Websites

I’m Determined http://www.imdetermined.org

This online home of the Virginia Department of Education Self-Determination Project is full of materials and resources designed to help students to play a fuller role in their own transition processes. Visitors will find online modules on a variety of transition-related topics, films, and materials to help students become more involved participants in their individual education programs (IEPs).

National High School Center http://www.betterhighschools.org/

Though this technical assistance center is no longer active, its library of online resources remains available for anyone looking for information and materials related to high school improvement and transition services for students.

NLTS2 http://www.nlts2.org/

Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 followed a group of students from across the country as they made the transition from secondary education. The results of that study—as well as information about the its design and methodology—can be found here.

Think College http://www.thinkcollege.net/index.php

Likewise sponsored by the University of Massachusetts Boston, the Think College Website is designed to help students with disabilities to find and enroll at the college of their choice. On hand here are resources about how to pay for post-secondary education, a series of self-guided modules, and a Webinar archive covering a host of important and relevant topics.

Transition Coalition http://transitioncoalition.org/transition/

Housed at the University of Kansas, the Transition Coalition provides resources and materials designed to improve transition services for students across the United States. Visitors here will find online courses and modules related to transition, materials and resources for use in their own schools, and a database of successful transition programs.

Youth on the Move http://www.youth-move.org/

Sponsored by the University of Massachusetts Boston, this Website is focused on all things related to effective transitions. Visitors will find a transition timeline based upon student age, notes on IEP meetings and the role of transition services, and a section on self-advocacy and self-determination.

Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichments http://www.ou.edu/content/education/centers-and-partnerships/zarrow.html

The University of Oklahoma’s Zarrow Center for Learning Enhancements is concerned with helping to create “successful secondary and postsecondary educational, vocational and personal outcomes for students and adults with disabilities.” The project’s Website contains resources related to student self-determination, a link to a preference indicator designed to help students to reach their post-school potential, a number of assessment tools, and more.

Module: Secondary Transition: Interagency Collaboration

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Articles

Carter, E. W., Owens, L., Swedeen, B., Trainor, A. A., Thompson, C., Ditchman, N., & Cole, O. (2009). Conversations that matter: Engaging communities to expand employment opportunities for youth with disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(6), 38–46.

This article outlines the results of research seeking to develop better and more effective methods of creating greater employment opportunities for students with disabilities after high school. The authors conclude that active and ongoing communication between school and transition personnel and local employers and employment agencies yield substantial benefits toward achieving that goal.

Connor, D. J. (2012). Helping students with disabilities transition to college: 21 tips for students with LD and/or ADD/ADHD. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(5), 16–25.

The tips and pointers offered in this article seek to address some of the challenges faced by students with disabilities as they transition from high school to higher education. Compiled with teachers, counselors, and families in mind, the tips include thoughts on the importance of learning about a college or university’s office of disability services, practicing decision-making skills, and knowing student rights, among much more.

Grigal, M., Dwyre, A., Emmett, J., & Emmett, R. (2012). A program evaluation tool for dual enrollment transition programs. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(5), 36–45.

Here the authors outline the design and “use of a program evaluation tool designed to support self-assessment of college-based transition programs serving students with intellectual disabilities between the ages of 18-21 in college settings.” Among the topics addressed by the evaluation tool are self-determination skills, student planning, evaluation, and the effectiveness of interagency coordination.

Hamblet, E. C. (2014). Nine strategies to improve college transition planning for students with disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(3), 53–59.

Among the strategies for improving transitions to college for students with disabilities listed in this article are collaborating with families, promoting student independence and self-determination, and equipping students with necessary assistive technology, among much more.

Kellems, R. O., & Morningstar, M. E. (2010). Tips for transition. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(2), 60–68.

The authors of this piece lay out not only a number of tips and suggestions for improving the success of post-secondary transitions for students with disabilities, but also offer other online sources for further information. Included here are examples of student-centered transition plans, student interview questions, and information on likely indicators of post-school success.

Kleinert, H. L., Jones, M. M., Sheppard-Jones, K., Harp, B., & Harrison, E. M. (2012). Students with intellectual disabilities going to college? Absolutely! TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(5), 26–35.

This article outlines a pilot program designed to improve the transition sucess of students with disabilities. It makes the case for similar programs on a more widescale and interconnected basis, describes types of post-secondary education programs, and offers examples student supports.

Online Resources

Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). Specialty set: CEC advanced special education transition specialist. Retrieved from http://community.cec.sped.org/dcdt/cec-transition-standards

Visit this site to download the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) standards for advanced special education transition specialists. Included here is a history of the development of those standards, as well thoughts on future steps in the process.

National Parent Center on Transition and Employment. (n.d.). Social Security/Ticket to work. Retrieved from http://www.pacer.org/transition/learning-center/benefits/social-security.asp

This brief online resource from the PACER Center offers information on the benefits offered by the Social Security Administration to transitioning students with disabilities. Included also are notes on the administration’s Ticket to Work program and the Work Incentives Improvement Act.

NICHCY. (2014). Education/training connections. Retrieved on https://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/education/

This resource from the Center for Parent Information and Resources includes a host of Web links to other centers, agencies, professional organizations, and more, all of use to students and the families of students with disabilities making the transition from high school to either employment or higher education.

NICHCY. (2016). Employment connections. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/employment/

Similarly, this resource from the Center for Parent Information and Resources includes a host of Web links to other centers, agencies, professional organizations, and more, all of use to students and the families of students with disabilities making the transition from high school to the world of work.

Oregon Office of Developmental Disabilities Services, et al. (2016). Developing and implementing a memorandum of understanding. Webinar. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/dhs/employment/employment-first/Documents/Memorandum%20of%20Understanding-2015.pdf

From the Oregon Office of Developmental Disabilities comes this memorandum of understanding regarding efforts by state agencies to help improve the employment opportunities for students with disabilities as they transition from high school to the work force.

Tennessee Works. (n.d.). Community resource guide. Retrieved from http://tennesseeworks.org/wp-content/uploads/Community-Resource-Guide1.pdf

This community resource guide from Tennessee Works seeks to offer information about the agencies and organizations in Nashville dedicated to helping students with disabilities to find jobs after their transition from high school. Included is contact information for advocacy agencies, disability resources for Spanish-speakers and other immigrants, and support services like daycare centers and transportation providers.

Transition Education Network. (n.d.). Interagency collaboration. Retrieved from http://project10.info/DetailPage.php?MainPageID=85&PageCategory=Effective%20Practices%20in%20Transition&PageSubCategory=Interagency%20Collaboration

This online resource offers information about Project 10, a Florida-based interagency collaboration network established to ease the post-high school transition for students with disabilities. The site also includes information on student-centered planning and effective transition practices, among much else.

U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Q and A: Questions and answers on secondary transition. Retrieved from http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,dynamic,QaCorner,10,

Have questions about the U.S. government’s role in improving secondary transitions for students with disabilities? Come here for answers. Included is information on agency roles, federal activity, and IEP goals for secondary education related to transitions.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. (2017). A transition guide to postsecondary education and employment for students with disabilities. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/transition/products/postsecondary-transition-guide-2017.pdf

This informative resource includes an overview of the secondary transition services and requirements outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Readers will find details and information about student-led planning, employment training options, and programs to help prepare students with disabilities for a successful transition to life after secondary school, among much else.

U.S. Department of Labor. (2014). Highlights of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014. Retrieved from https://www.doleta.gov/wioa/

The U.S. Department of Labor offers this at-a-glance look at the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, designed to make it easier for all Americans, including those with disabilities, to find gainful employment.

Website

National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (NTACT)
http://transitionta.org/

Dedicated to assisting “State Education Agencies, Local Education Agencies, State VR agencies, and VR service providers in implementing evidence-based and promising practices ensuring students with disabilities, including those with significant disabilities, graduate prepared for success in postsecondary education and employment,” the National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (NTACT) offers this wealth of resources and information. Visitors here will find resources about transition planning, effective practices, data-analysis and use, and much, much more.

Module: Secondary Transition: Student-Centered Transition Planning

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Articles

Konrad, M. (2008). 20 ways to involve students in the IEP process. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(4), 236–239.

Twenty simple steps to better and more fully involve students in their own IEP processes are presented here, with those steps helpfully grouped into five major stages that cover everything from “Stage 1: Developing Background Knowledge” to “Stage 5: Implementing the IEP.”

Konrad, M., Trela, K., & Test, D. (2006). Using IEP goals and objectives to teach paragraph writing to high school students with physical and cognitive disabilities. Education & Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41(2), 111–124.

This study overviews the effectiveness of GO 4 IT…NOW!, a self-regulated writing strategy designed to help students with disabilities to write better paragraphs. Results show that tying the strategy to the task of students writing their own IEP goals resulted in improved content and quality scores of those statements. Thoughts on implications for further research and practice are included.

Uphold, N. M., Walker, A. R., & Test, D. W. (2007). Resources for involving students in their IEP process. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(4). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ967452.pdf

The authors of this article address a gap in the availability of resources to improve student self-determination. Included here is a variety of “no-cost” guides, templates, toolkits, and more designed to better prepare students for their eventual transition from postsecondary education.

Online Resources

The Arc of Tennessee. (n.d.). Student involvement in their IEP. Retrieved from https://thearctn.org/Assets/Docs/Why-Student-Directed-IEPs.pdf

These colorful and informative slides present information, statistics, and resources to help improve the participation of students in their IEP processes. On hand here is a taxonomy for transition planning developed by Paula Kohler, findings from research studies into the IEP process and student involvement, and clarifying examples and non-examples of effective IEP practices.

Cameto, R., Levine, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). National Longitudinal Transition Study 2: Transition planning for students with disabilities. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496547.pdf

Developed in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), this report “examines efforts to prepare youth with disabilities for the transition from secondary school to adulthood. It highlights the transition planning process undertaken during high school with and for youth with disabilities as they prepare for life after school.” The resource includes demographic information related to the transition process, notes on student transition goals, tips for increasing family participation, and much more.

District of Columbia Office of the State Superintendent of Education. (n.d.) Student-led IEP toolkit. Retrieved from http://dc-transition_guide.frameweld.com/page/studentled_iep_toolkit_introduction_

This online toolkit from the District of Columbia Office of the State Superintendent of Education is offered in versions for students, for families, and for teachers, with modules, movie clips, and resources tailored to each group. Topics include preparing students to take an active role in their IEP meetings, building self-awareness and self-determination, and encouraging parents to play an important part in developing their child’s IEP.

I’m Determined, Virginia Department of Education. (n.d.). Module four: Students determined to take control of their education and their lives. Retrieved from http://www.imdetermined.org/quick_links/modules/module_four

This online module from the Virginia Department of Education’s I’m Determined program includes “ideas, videos and resources to help to get your student involved in leading his own IEP.” Readers will find a student-led IEP PowerPoint presentation, video clips showing students taking a lead role in their IEP meetings, sample portfolio templates, and links to other resources and information.

Martin, J. E., Marshall, L. H., Maxson, L. M., & Jerman, P. L. (1996). The self-directed IEP. Retrieved from https://ou.edu/content/dam/Education/zarrow/ChoiceMaker%20materials/info.Self-Directed%20IEP-rev.pdf

This compact online resource outlines a series of lessons designed to teach students how to better direct their own IEP meetings. Offered here are a number of “transition curriculum objectives” as well as the steps necessary to attaining them, related video suggestions for course enhancement, a reference list, and more.

Newman, L., Wagner, M., Knokey, A.-M., Marder, C., Nagle, K., Shaver, D., Wei, X., with Cameto, R., Contreras, E., Ferguson, K., Greene, S., and Schwarting, M. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 8 years after high school. A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncser/pubs/20113005/pdf/20113005.pdf

This book-length report on the results of this comprehensive study covers everything from an overview of the research and methods itself, statistics about young people with disability in education and employment, community engagement, social life, and much, much more.

Rutland Middle School. (n.d.). Student led IEPs in practice. Retrieved from https://www.gadoe.org/Curriculum-Instruction-and-Assessment/Special-Education-Services/Documents/Student%20Led%20IEPs%20ppt.pdf

This slide presentation developed by a middle school in Macon, Georgia, offers tips and information on IEP meetings led by its teachers, including accommodations for students with specific disabilities, examples and non-examples of the IEP process itself, and observations about how the IEP process changed the teachers’ own attitudes and perceptions.

Sawyer, S., & the California Transition Alliance. (2013). Secondary transition planning: The basics. Retrieved from http://www.catransitionalliance.org/docs/49-TransitionPlanningTheBasics2015_1029201590719.pdf

Developed by the California Transition Alliance, this helpful overview of the transition process includes a terminology guide, statistics from research into student transition, notes on effective ways to follow up with students after they transition out of secondary education, and more.

TenneseeWorks. (n.d.). Assessment information guide. TennesseeWorks Educator Series. Retrieved from http://www.tennesseeworks.org/wp-content/uploads/Assessment-Full-document.pdf

This online resource, created in conjunction with the Vanderbilt University Kennedy Center, contains information and checklists about a number of different assessment scales and transition skills inventories. Readers will find overviews of the AIR Self-Determination Scale, the Casey Life-Skills Assessment, and much more.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. (2017). A transition guide to postsecondary education and employment for students with disabilities. Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/transition/products/postsecondary-transition-guide-2017.pdf

This informative resources includes an overview of the secondary transition services and requirements outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Readers will find details and information about student-led planning, employment training options, and programs to help prepare students with disabilities for a successful transition to life after secondary school, among much else.

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2013). Opening doors to self-determination skills: Planning for life after high school. Retrieved from http://witig.org/wstidata/resources/postsecondary-education-english-fillable_1409758548.pdf

Created by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, this resource offers information for students and their families, teachers, counselors, and transition coordinators alike. Included are a transition planning timeline, some suggested questions to ask during IEP meetings, and a postsecondary education exploration worksheet.

Websites

I’m Determined, Virginia Department of Education http://www.imdetermined.org/

Visitors to the Virginia Department of Education’s I’m Determined site will find resources and information for teachers, students, and parents, including an extensive film archive, podcasts, and self-determination toolkits and resources students and their families alike.

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET) http://www.ncset.org/

The online home of the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition “offers technical assistance, and disseminates information related to secondary education and transition for youth with disabilities in order to create opportunities for youth to achieve successful futures.” Visitors here will find resources on IEPs and transition planning, student self-determination skills, and career guidance and job-seeking.

National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (NTACT) http://transitionta.org/

Dedicated to assisting state and local education agencies to facilitate greater and more efficient secondary transition, NTAC offers visitors to its online home a wide variety of resources and information, including transition planning resources, practice guides and data tools, practices and programs to increase the likelihood post-school success, among much else.

TennesseeWorks http://www.tennesseeworks.org/

A collaboration with Vanderbilt University’s Kennedy Center, TennesseeWorks seeks “to increase the number of young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) who are employed in the state.” On hand here are a wide variety of resources for young people, their families, prospective employers, and teachers. Resources include statistics on young people with disabilities and employment and an overview of federal, state, and local laws.

Module: Serving Students with Visual Impairments: The Importance of Collaboration

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Articles and Books

Erickson, K. A., Hatton, D., Roy, V., Fox, D., & Renne, D. (2007). Literacy in early intervention for children with visual impairments: Insights from individual cases. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 101(2), 80–95.

This article studies how early intervention supports the development of literacy for children with visual impairments. The article focuses on three themes: the importance of a family-centered approach, the function of the early interventionist in language development, and the value of focusing on the senses to develop literacy.

Muhlenhaupt, M. (2002). Family and school partnerships for IEP development. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 96(3), 175–178.

This article details the story of nine-year-old Kevin, a student with visual impairments and intellectual disabilities. The article emphasizes the importance of collaboration between the home and school in order to design an appropriate curriculum.

Perla, F., & O’Donnell, B. (2002). Reaching out: Encouraging family involvement in orientation and mobility. RE:View, 34(3), 103–110.

This article examines the tendency of students who require orientation and mobility specialists not to apply the skills they have learned at school to their home lives. As a remedy, the authors suggest reaching out to the families in order to reinforce O&M skills, particularly during long breaks from school.

Pogrund, R. L., & Fazzi, D. L. (Eds.). (2002). Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed.). New York: AFB Press.

This book describes the importance of collaboration and family involvement in early intervention techniques to support students with visual impairments. Detailed information on working with families from a variety of ethnic backgrounds is included.

Pugach, M. C., & Johnson, L. J. (2002). Collaborative practitioners, collaborative schools (2nd ed.). Denver: Love Publishing.

This book covers collaboration in schools in a variety of contexts, including collaboration between teachers, between school and universities, and between school and home.

Rosenblum, L. P., & Corn, A. L. (2003). Families promoting travel skills for their children with visual impairments. RE:View, 34(4), 175–180.

This article suggests ways for families to enhance the travel skills of their children with visual impairments. These include sharing information while traveling, helping people with low vision become drivers, and assisting those who will not become drivers to gain additional independence.

Suvak, P. A. (2004). What do they really do? Activities of teachers of students with visual impairments. RE:View, 36(1), 22.

This article studies the difference between what teachers of students with visual impairments are trained to do and what they actually do in practice. Information was gathered in the following six areas: demographics, placements, visual diagnosis, instruction, disability, and academic and functional competency.

Online Resources

National Federation of the Blind http://www.nfb.org/nfb/Default.asp

With affiliates in every state in the United States, the National Federation of the Blind is the largest advocacy organization for people with visual impairments in the country. Among its many programs and activities, the NFB focuses on education, community outreach, research, and the creation of programs to increase the independence of those with visual impairments.

New York Institute for Special Education: Blindness Resource Center http://www.nyise.org/blind.htm

Organized and updated by the New York Institute for Special Education (NYISE), the Blindness Resource Center is an online clearinghouse for information regarding current research, organizations, technology, programs, and vendors, among many other topics, for people with visual disabilities.

Module: SOS: Helping Students Become Independent Learners

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Articles

Gunter, P. L., Miller, K. A., Venn, M. L., Thomas, K., & House, S. (2002). Self- graphing to success: Computerized data management. Teaching Exceptional
Children, 35(2), 30–34. 

This article proffers a solution to a problem that all teachers face in trying to find the time to collect data on their students and still teach. It recommends that students with disabilities use Microsoft Excel to record and graph data pertaining to their academic or social behavior. The article outlines the steps involved in creating a self-graphing process in the classroom, which include preparing the computer and training the students to enter their own data. Self-graphing is beneficial for students because it allows them to monitor their progress, and for teachers because it allows them to devote more time to teaching.

Singer, B. D., & Bashir, A. S. (1999). What are executive functions and self- regulation and what do they have to do with language-learning disorders?
Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 30, 265–273. 

This article defines executive functions and self-regulation and discusses how the reciprocity of these factors impacts the performance of students with language-learning disorders (LLD).

Nonverbal Learning Disorders. (n.d.). Implementing self-regulation and self- monitoring in the classroom. Retrieved April 25, 2005, from http://www.nldline.com/self_regulation.htm

This article describes the difference between self-regulation and self-monitoring, highlighting the benefits and implementation of each. You can visit the NLDline Website for useful information about nonverbal learning disabilities.

Books

Shapiro, E. S., & Cole, C. L. (1994). Behavior change in the classroom: Self- management interventions. New York: Guilford Press. 

This book contains an introduction and a literature review for self-management interventions. It describes different self-management intervention strategies and how to implement them. Case illustrations are included to demonstrate featured techniques.

O’Keefe, E. J., &. Berger, D. S. (2000). Self-management for college students: The ABC approach. Hyde Park, NY: Partridge Hill Publishers. 

This how-to-study book offers behavioral tools for managing different aspects of learning. Chapters address the following: managing time; increasing motivation; ending procrastination; improving grades; strengthening relationships; communicating effectively; raising self-confidence; and increasing positive feelings, behaviors, and thoughts.

Online resources

Malott, R. W. (2003). Learning skills program: Self-management checklist. Retrieved 4/25/05 from http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/motivation/self-management.html,
University of Victoria, Counseling Services. 

On this Website, Richard Malott offers twelve simple checklist steps to help one to stay on course. Although this list is geared for everyday activities, it can easily be adapted for the classroom.

Sevier County Board of Education, Sevier County, TN. (n.d.). Self-management of behavior in schools. Retrieved April 25, 2005, from http://www.slc.sevier.org/selfmgt.htm

This paper gives an introduction to self-management and how to teach self-management skills. It also discusses several variations of self-management strategies and how to apply them.

Module: SRSD: Using Learning Strategies To Enhance Student Learning

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Articles

Baker, S. K., Chard, D. J., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Apichatabutra, C., & Doabler, C. (2009). Teaching writing to at-risk students: The quality of evidence for self-regulated strategy development. Exceptional Children, 75, 303–318.

As its title suggests, this study evaluates the quality of the evidence used to support the efficacy of SRSD programs. The result is a detailed and multi-faceted examination of the relevant research across a wide variety of characteristics.

De La Paz, S., Owen B., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2000). Riding Elvis’s motorcycle: Using self-regulated strategy development to PLAN and WRITE for a state writing exam. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(2), 101–109

In this article, the authors share theories behind SRSD and writing strategies to help prepare a group of students to take a state writing exam.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2009). Almost 30 years of writing research: Making sense of it all with The Wrath of Khan. Learning Disabilities Research, 24, 58–68.

This article features the findings of its authors’ examination of the various aspects of an ongoing research program in writing. Though the piece focuses on LD instruction, it includes detailed thoughts on the development of such writing programs over time and through the experience of those implementing them. An analogy to the evolution of the storyline of the Hollywood feature film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan is used to clarify and illustrate this development process.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Troia, G. A. (2000). Self-regulated strategy development revisited: Teaching writing strategies to struggling readers. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(4), 1–14.

In this article, the authors describe their efforts to create a self-regulation strategy for students who demonstrate pronounced reading difficulties. A detailed discussion of the strategy model and its efficacy among various students is included.

Lienemann, T. O., & Reid, R. (2006). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities: The self-regulated strategy development model. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(1), 3–11.

Geared toward the educators of teachers, this article takes an in-depth look at the Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) model for teaching students with learning disabilities. Throughout the article, the authors stress the effectiveness of the model and the need for classroom teachers to understand its purpose. The authors also address how to implement CSI in the classroom.

Lienemann, T. O., & Reid, R. (2008). Using self-regulated strategy development to improve expository writing with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Council for Exceptional Children, 74(4), 471–486.

In this article, the authors detail efforts at implementing a self-regulation strategy among students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an attempt to improve their writing skills. The results of said effort were found to be generally positive, with a number of observable improvements in the nature, length, and skill of the students’ expository writing assignments.

Mason, L., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2002). Every child has a story to tell: Self- regulation strategy development for story writing. Education and Treatment of Children, 25(4), 496–506.

Here the authors implement self-regulation strategy among a group of students engaged in a story writing assignment. The article details the steps taken during implementation and makes suggestions for further modifications.

Warger, E. (2002, Winter). Helping students with disabilities prepare well-written compositions. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from
http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED464444.pdf

This article offers a detailed example of how, after the implementation of writing strategies in one high school, 94 percent of the students passed the writing portion of their state’s competency exam.

Zito, J., Adkins, M., Gavins, M., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2007). Self-regulated strategy development: Relationship to the social-cognitive perspective and the development of self-regulation. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23, 77–95.

In this article, the authors examine in detail the relationship between Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) and a specific version of social cognitive theory. Included is a description of SRSD in the classroom.

Books

Bender, W. (2002). Differentiating instruction for students with learning disabilities: Best teaching practices for general & special educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press; Council for Exceptional Children.

This book presents a wide variety of instructional strategies to help students with learning disabilities succeed in the classroom. Strategies for individualized, small-group, and whole-class instruction are presented.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Writing better: Teaching writing process and self- regulation to students with learning problems. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

This helpful and highly detailed work treats a number of strategies and offers specific steps and classroom examples for the implementation of structured writing assignments for students with disabilities.

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds). (1998). Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice. New York: Guilford Press.

The authors offer a wealth of ideas across different domains, such as time and homework management, that can be used to supplement the SRSD model. Chapter 2 is devoted specifically to cases in which the SRSD model is demonstrated.

Online Resources

Cognitive Strategy Instruction, University of Nebraska-Lincoln cehs.unl.edu/csi/

This Website is devoted to different types of cognitive strategy instruction used in the classroom. The “Teaching Strategies” link contains a section on the SRSD model. Specifically, this section gives clear description of the six steps in the SRSD model.

Harris, K. (2008, December 11). Socrates died from an overdose of wedlock: Research on self-regulated strategy development in writing. [Video recording]. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, from http://uptv.univ-poitiers.fr/web/canal/61/theme/28/manif/202/video/1867/index.html

Karen Harris, Currey Ingram Professor of Special Education at Peabody College, leads this presentation at the Universite de Poitiers, France. In it, she discusses in detail the characteristics of both struggling and skilled writers and the process model for writing instruction as a means of improving the academic outcomes for both groups. A consideration of self-regulation strategy instruction begins at around the 23-minute mark.

Project Write http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/projectwrite/

This Website houses materials and resources (including lesson plans) to supplement the use of the Self-Regulated Strategies Development (SRSD) approach for early elementary students. Included is an overview of SRSD (with a detailed explanation of the strategy’s various stages), as well as links to information and materials that teachers can use to enhance the lessons found herein.

Self-Regulated Strategy Development in Writing: Story and Opinion Essay Writing for Students with Disabilities or Severe Difficulties in the Early Elementary Grades. National Center on Accelerating Student Learning http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/CASL/srsd.html

The National Center on Accelerating Student Learning focuses on increasing learning for students with disabilities in the early grades. One of the main tools used to facilitate accelerated learning is the SRSD model. This Website specifically addresses the use of SRSD as a means to improve writing skills and presents evidence to argue the effectiveness of the method.

Module: Study Skills Strategies (Part 1): Foundations for Effectively Teaching Study Skills

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Articles

Brown, T. E. (2007). A new approach to attention deficit disorder. Education Leadership, 64(5), 22–27.

In this effort, the author sets out to describe and dispel many of the persistent misapprehensions about this increasingly common diagnosis. Far from being a mere cluster of “behavior problems” or the inability to “sit still,” ADD/ADHD is better understand as a disorder that negatively impacts the brain’s ability to effectively organize and manage its own activity. Notes regarding the implications for future research and application are included.

Brown, T. E. (2008). Executive functions: Describing six aspects of a complex syndrome. Retrieved on February 15, 2013, from
http://www.chadd.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Especially_For_Adults&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=5802

Far from being a simple mechanism, the human mind’s ability to pay attention is a complex interaction of what the author terms “executive functions.” Understanding those functions, and how they relate to one another is crucial to a deeper appreciation of the challenges facing those diagnosed with ADD/ADHD.

Lienemann, T. O., & Reid, R. (2006). Self-Regulated Strategy Development for students with learning disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(1), 3–11. Retrieved on February 21, 2013,from http://www.mdecgateway.org/olms/data/resource/3853/Self-regulated%20strategy%20development.pdf

In this article, the authors lay out the basics of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD), including notes on how to help students to activate their background knowledge, how to model the strategy, and how to support effective SRSD implementation in the long-term.

Books

Dawson, P., & Guare, R. (2004). Executive skills in children and adolescents: A practical guide to assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford Press.

This highly detailed book serves as a step-by-step manual for helping students to enhance their own executive function skills, everything from behavior self-regulation to planning and organizational skills. Included are planning sheets and checklists for further assessment and monitoring.

Lenz, B. K., Ellis, E. S., & Scanlon, D. (1996). Teaching learning strategies to adolescents and adults with learning disabilities. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

This useful book details a number of effective learning strategies tailored specifically for adults and young people with learning exceptionalities. On hand here are step-by-step notes for the individual strategies, as well as instructions for continuing assessment.

Movie/ Video

Lavoie, R. D., & the Public Broadcasting System. (Producers). (2004). Understanding learning disabilities: How difficult can this be? The F.A.T. city workshop [Motion picture]. United States: PBS Video.

In this video, Richard Lavoie, an educator and expert on youth with learning disabilities, presents a number of simulated classroom situations designed to vividly illustrate the frustrations and challenges faced by students with learning differences. Also included are discussions of strategies to help lessen those frustrations, as well as meditations by participating parents, teachers, and others on how the simulations changed their perceptions of the day-to-day struggles encountered by students with learning disabilities in the classroom.

Online Resources

Cooper-Kahn, J., & Dietzel, L. (2008). What is executive functioning? Retrieved on February 15, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/29122/

This handy online resource is a brief but informative overview of the executive function, what it is and what their absence would mean to everyday life. The eight most-commonly cited functions—including emotional control, working memory, and planning /organization—are briefly defined and explained.

Horowitz, S. H. (n.d.). Strategic instruction model: How to teach, how to learn. National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/ld-education-teachers/strategic-instruction-model-how-teach-how-learn

This short but useful resource overviews the basics of an effective research-validated approach to teaching students effective learning strategies in the classroom. The author outlines some of the basic assumptions of the approach and offers a breakdown of some of the major strategies that users can learn more about on the SIM Website. A short list of further resources is also on hand.

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2005). What is executive function? Retrieved on May 23, 2013, from http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/executive-function-disorders/what-is-executive-function

Another general overview of executive function, this resource includes a formal definition as well as a breakdown of the major executive functions. A list of Web links for further investigation is also here.

Strategic Instruction Model Website, The University of Kansas http://www.kucrl.org/sim/

This Website housed at the University of Kansas includes a wealth of information for those wishing to learn more about the Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) for more effectively teaching students crucial academic content. Visitors will find extensive information on a host of subject-specific learning strategies, as well as notes on teaching routines and content enhancement, information about professional development opportunities, and more.

National Center for Learning Disabilities http://www.ncld.org/

The Website of the National Center for Learning Disabilities includes a host of information for those wishing to learn more about executive function. Available here are resources related to Executive Function: Organizing and Prioritizing Strategies for Academic Success, Executive Function: Self-Monitoring and Self-Checking for Independent Learning, and Executive Function and School Performance: A 21st Century Challenge, among much else.

Module: Study Skills Strategies (Part 2): Strategies that Improve Students’ Academic Performance

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Articles

Bakunas, B., & Holley, W. (2001). Teaching organizational skills. The Clearing House, 77(3).

In this article, the authors lay out an intuitive method for teaching organizational skills to students as they would other types of process-related subjects: through repetition and modeling. The method presented here stresses simplicity and clearly outlined objectives while inviting instructors to add their own priorities to this otherwise usefully barebones approach.

Boyle, J. R. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 46, 131–140. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/6210/

One of the keys to successful student study skills habits is efficient and useful note-taking. Here the author offers a pair of recommendations: potential modification to the teacher’s presentation style, or the teaching of refined note-taking techniques. Included are templates for strategic note-taking and an outline of guided notes for use by students in the classroom.

Dragoo, K. (2012). Reading comprehension instruction for students with learning disabilities, 1995–2006: A meta-analysis. NICHCY Structured Abstract 82. Research to Practice, 82. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from http://nichcy.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/meta82.pdf

This condensation of some forty studies related to the beneficial effects of reading interventions among students with disabilities offers a wealth of information related to learning outcomes and the proven importance of structured learning for students with exceptional needs. On hand here are notes on the research design of the various studies, elaborations on the findings, and ruminations on implications for future investigation and instruction.

Ewoldt. K. B., & Morgan, J. J. (2017). Color-coded graphic organizers for teaching writing to students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(3), 175–184.

In this article, the authors promote the use of graphic organizers to help improve the writing skills of struggling learners. Covered here are systemic instruction using color-coded organizers, sentence and paragraph creation, the use of prompts, and much more.

Hagaman, J. L., & Reid, R. (2008). The effects of the paraphrasing strategy on the reading comprehension of middle-school students at-risk for failure in reading. Remedial & Special Education, 29, 222–234.

In this article, the authors set out to examine the effectiveness of a paraphrasing strategy called “RAP” when used in conjunction with self-regulated strategy development among at-risk sixth-grade students. On hand are notes about instructional considerations and a conclusion indicating that the strategy pairing resulted in improved reading outcomes.

Hagaman, J. L., Casey, K. J., & Reid, R. (2012). The effects of the paraphrasing strategy on the reading comprehension of young students. Remedial and Special Education, 33, 110–123. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from
http://intl-rse.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/03/12/0741932510364548.full.pdf+html

This article takes a look at the outcome of an investigation into the benefits of a structured paraphrasing strategy among third-grade students identified as strong readers. Findings indicate that an enhanced ability of students to sum up what they’ve read in their own words improved both their recall and their scores on subsequent homework and tests. Implications for future research are also discussed.

Hall, C., Kent, S. C., McCulley, L., Davis, Angela, & Wanzek, J. (2013). A new look at mnemonics and graphic organizers in the secondary social studies classroom. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(1), 47–55.

In this article, the authors examine a number of strategies designed to help students with disabilities improve their outcomes in secondary social studies. With a particular focus on the use of graphic organizers, the article offers detailed illustrations as examples of visually imparting information to students who might struggle with text information. Also on hand are notes on acoustic elaborations, guidelines for the use of visual mnemonics, and step-by-step guidelines for the use of graphic organizers, among much more.

Hall, T., & Strangman, N. (2002). Graphic organizers. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved on February 20, 2013, from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/graphic_organizers

A wide variety of graphic organizers—used across an array of instructional subjects—have been embraced by teachers as a way to improve the learning outcomes of their students. In this concise resource, the authors introduce readers to a number of them, suggest tips for effective implementation, and offer evidence of their effectiveness. An expanded section on instructional context, complete with a host of resources for further review, rounds out the effort.

Kim, W., Linan-Thompson, S., & Misquitta, R. (2012). Critical factors in reading comprehension instruction for students with learning disabilities: A research synthesis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27(2), 66–78. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2012.00352.x/full

This review of some twenty years of research into the effectiveness of reading comprehension strategies suggests a complex range of positive effects on student outcomes across a number of techniques and instructional practices. Here the authors focus on five critical factors, including self-monitoring and fidelity of instruction. A discussion that includes notes on implications for practice is included.

Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2010). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 46(3), 131–140. Retrieved on February 20, 2013, from http://isc.sagepub.com/content/46/3/131.full.pdf+html

Especially for students with learning disabilities, taking notes in class can prove a challenge. In this article, the authors lay out a guided note-taking strategy that will help students to study and ultimately serve to improve their academic outcomes. They include notes on developing a guided note-taking strategy and thoughts on how to combine that strategy with other evidence-based instructional techniques.

Rozalski, M. E. (2008). Practice, practice, practice: How to improve students’ study skills. Beyond Behavior, 17(2), 17–23.

For students with emotional and behavioral issues, good study skills are especially important. Here the authors describe some basic strategies for effective instruction into such basic habits as good listening, note-taking, and memory and recall, as well as notes on how it can all be integrated into daily classroom learning.

Singleton, S. M., & Filce, H. G. (2015). Graphic organizers for secondary students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(2), 110–117.

In this article, the authors look at the ways in which graphic organizers can be used to help secondary students with disabilities to develop the critical thinking skills required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Included are notes and tips on selecting graphic organizers for students with disabilities, as well as examples of some of those organizers as they might be used in classrooms, presenting graphic organizers in during a lesson, and much more.

Movie/Video

Lavoie, R. D., & the Public Broadcasting System. (Producers). (2004). Understanding learning disabilities: How difficult can this be? The F.A.T. city workshop [Motion picture]. United States: PBS Video.

In this video, Richard Lavoie, an educator and expert on youth with learning disabilities, presents a number of simulated classroom situations designed to vividly illustrate the frustrations and challenges faced by students with learning differences. Also included are discussions of strategies to help lessen those frustrations, as well as meditations by participating parents, teachers, and others on how the simulations changed their perceptions of the day-to-day struggles encountered by students with learning disabilities in the classroom.

Online Resources

The Access Center. (2006). Using mnemonic instruction to teach math. Retrieved on February 20, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/13717/

This brief but informative piece outlines some of the benefits of using mnemonics to teach mathematics. Included here are a basic definition of the method, some notes on effective implementation, and an outline of three of the most-common strategies.

Ellis, E. S. (1998). Framing main ideas and essential details to promote comprehension. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from
http://www.ldonline.org/article/5765/

This adaptation of a book-length work overviews a particular type of graphic organizer that can be adapted to a wide variety of content-learning purposes. Included are notes on effective classroom implementation and a number of templates to meet an array of possible instructional uses.

Focus on Effectiveness. (2005). Classroom examples: High school. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from http://www.netc.org/focus/examples/#high

There are endless and endlessly innovative methods for improving student comprehension and learning. This online resource lays out just a few at the high school level, including using online note-taking, summarizing complex texts (using cell phones), and increasing understanding through the implementation of mapping software, among many others.

Gersten, R., & Baker, S. B. (1999). Reading comprehension instruction for students with LD. National Center for Learning Disabilities report. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/ld-education-teachers/reading-comprehension-instruction-students-with-ld

This online article outlines research into the effectiveness of reading comprehension instruction among students with learning disabilities, who are particularly vulnerable to falling behind in the subject. Finding are briefly overviewed, as are recommendations for further research.

Great Schools. (n.d.). Study and test-taking strategies for kids with learning difficulties. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from
http://www.greatschools.org/students/academic-skills/627-study-and-test-taking-strategies-for-kids-with-learning-difficulties.gs

Good study habits are especially important for students with learning difficulties, but those are precisely the students are least likely to receive the kind of instruction they need to develop them. This article makes the case for that instruction, and includes notes on helping students to know what to study, strategies for organizing and remembering, and information about effective self-monitoring practices, among much else.

Hatton, D., & Hatton, K. (n.d.). Apps for students with LD: Organization and study. Retrieved on November 5, 2013, from http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/assistive-technology-education/apps-students-ld-organization-study

This helpful list, devised by a woman with the assistance of her daughter, who has dyslexia, describes and links directly to a number of mobile apps that students with learning disabilities might find useful. Users will find apps designed to help students to keep track of their courses, a mapping tool to help students record and remember their thoughts, and a program for creating annotations on large PDF and TXT files, among much else.

Kerka, S., ed. (2007). Study skills. Columbus, OH: Learning Work Connection. Retrieved on January 4, 2013, from http://jfs.ohio.gov/owd/WorkforceProf/Youth/Docs/studyskills.pdf

Produced by LearningWork Connection and featuring short articles from a variety of experts, this downloadable document is an informative reference on many key aspects of study skills instruction. On hand are Carolyn Ito’s thoughts on students who struggle with organizational skills, Pat Beckman on strategy instruction, and Andrew Cohen on strategy training for secondary language students, among much else.

LD Online. (2003). Opening the doors to learning: Technology research for students with learning disabilities (notetaking skills). Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Opening_the_Doors_to_Learning%3A_Technology_
Research_for_Students_with_Learning_Disabilities_(Notetaking_Skills)?theme=print

This resource offers some thoughts on the importance of note-taking to improve the education outcomes of students with disabilities. Included here is the story of “Luke,” a student struggling with just that skill, as well as an introduction to the “Project Connect” system, a technological application to enhance student study habits.

Levy, E. (2007). Teaching students to take class notes. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/12855/

It’s widely accepted that students with learning disabilities tend to struggle when it comes to taking good notes in the classroom, but what are some specific methods they can use to take better, more meaningful notes? In this short but useful online resource, the author sets out some basic examples of ways students can quickly and easily improve their note-taking skills through the use of symbols, abbreviations, and webbing, among others.

Newhall, P. W. (2008). Organizational skills for students with learning disabilities: The master filing system for paper. Retrieved on February 27, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/25179/

One of the most common issues facing students with learning disabilities is that of simply organizing and keeping track of their books, notebooks, homework, and other basic classroom necessities. In this piece, the author overviews a method for doing just that. Included are notes on creating such a “master filing system” and mastering its use and routines.

Richards, R. G. (2008). Making it stick: Memorable strategies to enhance learning. Retrieved from http://ldonline.org/article/making_it_stick%3A_memorable_strategies_to_enhance_learning

More and more, researchers are recognizing that good memorization is a skill that can be taught and learned and that good memorization can improve student study skills habits and learning outcomes. Here, the author outlines a handful of methods for improving memorization, including the use of rhyming or mnemonic devices, and graphic organizers, among much else.

Richards, R. G. (2008). Memory strategies for students: The value of strategies. Retrieved on February 20, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5736/

As in the resource above, this online piece suggests a number of strategies to improve the ability of students organize and recall academic content. These include the use of diagrams and other graphic tools, mnemonic devices, and sound/ symbol correspondences, among others.

Zumbrunn, S., Tadlock, J., & Roberts, E. D. (2011). Encouraging self-regulated learning in the classroom: A review of the literature. Retrieved on November 16, 2012, from http://www.merc.soe.vcu.edu/files/2013/11/Self-Regulated-Learning-2.pdf

This informative overview of the current research literature includes a detailed definition of self-regulation and its crucial importance in student learning, as well as notes on a number of effective self-regulation strategies, potential instructional challenges, and the implications for further investigation and inquiry.

Module: Teacher Induction: Providing Comprehensive Training for New Special Educators

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Articles

Billingsley, B. (2010). Work contexts matter: Practical considerations for improving new special educators’ experiences in schools. The Journal of Special Education Leadership, 23(1), 41–49.

This article addresses the challenge of special education teacher retention through a combination of practical tips and effective strategies designed to help new teachers deal with a host of classroom issues. On hand here are notes on lesson planning, time management, and classroom behavior, as well as nine specific recommendations for helping special educators to adjust to the rigors of the profession.

Billingsley, B., Carlson, E., & Klein, S. (2004). The working conditions and induction support of early career special educators. Exceptional Children, 70(3), 333–347.

This piece represents an attempt to determine what kinds of school conditions lead to higher rates of retention among special education instructors. The authors piece together a complex picture, but one suggesting that teachers who feel supported by their peers enjoy higher rates of retention than do those who do not, with the overall climate of the school (and the extent to which they feel they are able to make a difference in their students’ lives) also playing a determinative role.

Billingsley, B., Griffin, C., Smith, S.J., Kamman, M., & Israel, M. (2009). A Review of Teacher Induction in Special Education: Research, Practice, and Technology Solutions. Monograph prepared for the National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development (NCIPP), The University of Florida.

The authors of this informative report offer an overview of our current understanding of teacher induction efforts and the extent to which they curtail the rate of retention, particularly among special educators. Included are a comprehensive set of recommendations and guidelines for improving those efforts as well as a look forward at the research and work to come.

Bishop, A.G., Brownell, M.T., Klingner, J.K., Leko, M.M., & Galman, S.A.C. (2010). Differences in beginning special education teachers: The influence of personal attributes, preparation, and school environment on classroom reading practices. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, 75–92.

One goal of researchers is to build a better understanding of the factors and characteristics that might incline certain educators to leave the profession. In this article, the authors explore that question, overviewing an interplay of personal characteristics, school environments, and credentialing backgrounds that might make some special education instructors more likely to leave the field than some of their peers.

Collins, L. W., Sweigart, C. A., Landrum, T. J., & Cook, B. C. (2017). Navigating common challenges and pitfalls in the first years of special education: Solutions for success. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(4), 213–222.

The high rate of special education teacher turnover during the first few years in the profession remains a significant challenge for instructors and schools alike. Fortunately, a growing number of promising practices are now available to help stem the tide of teacher attrition. Here the authors examine a few of them, including the application of self-assessment of professional support and practice, and performance feedback to improve the identification and use of evidence-based practices in the classroom. A list of reliable resources is also included for those wishing to learn more.

Gehrke, R.S., & Murri, N. (2006). Beginning special educators’ intent to stay in special education: Why they like it here. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(3), 179–190.

In this report, the authors examine how special education teachers react to their first encounters with the classroom via interviews with a number of instructors. Their findings indicate that, though first- and second-year teachers are committed in principle to overcoming the initial challenges presented by the profession, significant frustrations stem from curricular demands and the expectation that their students will be included in general education classrooms for at least some part of the day.

Gehrke, R.S., & McCoy, K. (2007). Sustaining and retaining beginning special educators: It takes a village. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 490–500.

This study sets out to gauge the importance of support systems for new special education instructors. In it, the authors detail the experiences of five first-year teachers and find that the stronger their network of support, the more likely they were to remain in the profession past the first few, sometimes difficult, years.

Rock, M. L., Zigmond, N. P., Gregg, M., & Gable, R. A. (2011). The power of virtual coaching. Educational Leadership, 69(2), 42–48.

If in-person teacher coaches are not available, what about a virtual coach? This article overviews the effectiveness of such professional distance-relationships on the attrition rates of new educators. Included is an overview of the practice, thoughts on its relative value, and advice for those who might take up or otherwise be involved in virtual coaching.

Rock, M. L., Gregg, M., Howard, P. W., Gable, R. A., Zigmond, N., L. Bullock, B., & Blanks, B. (2012). Time after time online: An extended study of virtual coaching during distant clinical practice. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 20(3), 277–304.

This detailed and informative resource sets out to sound the effectiveness of virtual or distance coaching through a close examination of the practice via individual interactions. Virtual coaching sessions were recorded and examined, and the findings indicate that virtual coaching can indeed have a positive impact on teacher effectiveness and attrition rates.

Sindelar, P.T., Heretick, J., Hirch, E., Rorrer, A., & Dawson, S.A. (2010). What district administrators need to know about state induction policy. The Journal of Special Education Leadership, 23(1), 5–13.

How do state policy and standards affect the overall success of teacher mentoring programs? The authors of this informative study set out to discover the answer. On hand here is an overview of the interaction between state education policy and the relative value of teacher mentoring, as well as how individual parts of that policy might serve to strengthen or weaken those programs.

Whitaker, S. D. (2003). Needs of beginning special education teachers: Implications for teacher education. Teacher Education and Special Education, 26(2), 106–117.

This study—which examined the experiences of new teachers in South Carolina—found that, though help with behavior management and curricular demands were high on the list of perceived needs, the most commonly expressed sentiments were for greater support (including emotional support) and more help acclimating to an individual school’s culture. Implications of the study and a suggestion of further work are also included.

White, M., & Mason, C. Y. (2006). Components of a successful mentoring program for beginning special education teachers: Perspectives from new teachers and mentors. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(3), 191–201.

This wide-scale examination of the practical effect of teacher mentoring programs—conducted at schools around the country and involving hundreds of teachers and mentors—found that those programs are indeed perceived as valuable by new special education instructors and that they do appear to lessen the attrition rate among those just entering the profession.

Books

Billingsley, B. Brownell, M., Israel, M. & Kamman, M. (2013). Survival Guide for First-Year Special Education Teachers, Jossey Bass: San Francisco, CA.

This book-length work serves as a practical how-to guide for surviving the early days as a special education instructor. Practical tips—including notes on creating good relationships with one’s fellow teachers and managing classroom behavior—are on hand, among much more.

Websites

The National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development Website
(http://ncipp.education.ufl.edu)

This national center provides information and resources for teachers engaged in the instruction of students with disabilities. The focus here is on influencing public policy and fostering the creation of strong and effective mentoring programs for new teachers.

The CEEDAR Center Website
(http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu)

The CEEDAR Center supports state efforts at creating education professionals who are better prepared and better able to create strong outcomes for educate students with disabilities.

Module: Teacher Retention: Reducing the Attrition of Special Educators

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Books

Billingsley, B. (2005). Cultivating and keeping committed special educators: What principals and district administrators can do. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Published in collaboration with the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), this book-length work uses data and real-life scenarios to present a picture of the special education teacher shortage. On hand here are chapters on why special educators leave the profession, the use of responsive induction to support new educators, and tips for designing effective professional development, among much more.

Johnson, S. M., & the Project on the Next Generation of Teachers. (2004). Finders and keepers: Helping teachers survive and thrive in our schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This informative work highlights the experiences of ten new teachers, some of whom ultimately chose to quit the profession. Included are chapters on the value of a supportive professional environment and the use of school-based induction programs to reduce the likelihood that new teachers will leave the classroom.

Websites

Center on Great Teachers and Leaders http://www.tqsource.org/

Perpetuating the work of the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality (TQ Center), the Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL) has broadened its mission to offer technical assistance and a wide array of online resources.

 Learning Forward http://learningforward.org/

Learning Forward is an educational association designed to improve student achieve through more effective professional learning.

National Center to Improve Recruitment and Retention of Qualified Personnel for Children with Disabilities http://www.personnelcenter.org/

The National Center to Improve Recruitment and Retention of Qualified Personnel for Children with Disabilities is a federally funded technical assistance and dissemination project between the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP).

Module: Teaching English Language Learners: Effective Instructional Practices

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Articles

Butvilofsky, S., Escamilla, M., Geisler, D., Hopewell, S., & Ruiz, O. A. (2010). Transition to biliteracy: literacy squared. Informally published manuscript.
School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder.

This useful and informative resource grew out of a meeting of educators and experts at a 2004 National Association for Bilingual Education Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where the focus was on transitions among ELLs. This work, as its title suggests, examines the available research having to do with “transitions to biliteracy” and describes in detail the creation and implementation of the Literacy Squared intervention framework.

Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English language learners: What the research does—and does not—say. American Educator, 32(2), 8–23, 42–44.

This article reviews the research done by the National Literacy Panel (NPL) and the Center for Research on Diversity, Education, and Excellence (CREDE) pertaining to the education of English learners. Instructional modifications, critical questions, and two classroom views are all on hand.

Miller, R. D. (2016). Contextualizing instruction for English language learners with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(1), 58–65.

The author of this article overviews a detailed plan for contextualizing English instruction for ELL students with learning disabilities. Steps include building vocabulary and building background knowledge. A discussion and some final thoughts are included.

Rolstad, K., Mahoney, K., & Glass, G. V. (2005). The Big Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Program Effectiveness Research on English Language Learners. Educational Policy, 19
(4), 572–594.

This article presents a meta-analysis of bilingual education programs, including developmental and transitional programs. Recommendations for educational policy are provided.

The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (2010). AccELLerate! The quarterly newsletter of the National Clearinghouse for English Language
Acquisition,2(2), 1–20.

Topics covered in this issue include, but are not limited to, quality teacher preparation for ELLs, the national professional development program, and math ACCESS: building mathematical proficiency in linguistically diverse schools.

The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (2010). AccELLerate! The quarterly newsletter of the National Clearinghouse for English Language
Acquisition, 2(4), 1–20.

Topics covered in this issue include, but are not limited to, formative assessment, what makes a “good” assessment for ELLs?, and validity and fairness of assessments for ELLs.

Pickett, A. L. (1998). A core curriculum and training program to prepare paraeducators to work with learners who have limited English proficiency. NRCP.

This training series targets paraeducators who work with students with limited English proficiency in inclusive classrooms. The training provides several resources, including handouts and transparencies with references accompanying each module.

Snow, C. E. (2010). Academic language and the challenge of reading for learning about science. Science, 328(5977), 450–452, Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.sciencemag.org/content/328/5977/450.full

This article breaks down some of the reasons for student difficulty in reading and comprehending science material in the school curriculum.

Wanzek, J., Swanson, E., Vaughn, S., Robers, G., & Fall, A-M. (2016). English learner and non-English learner students with disabilities: Content acquisition and comprehension. Exceptional Children, 82(4), 428–442.

Here the authors overview the effectiveness of Promoting Adolescent Comprehension Through Text (PACT), a group of instructional practices designed for middle and high school social studies classes. Their findings indicate that PACT’s six components did in fact lead to better comprehension and thus better outcomes for both ELLs and native English speakers alike..

Books

Ariza, E. N. W. (2010). Not for ESOL teachers: What every classroom teacher needs to know about the linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse student.
Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book includes examples, for the general educator, of ways to modify content for English learners. Examples of behaviors exhibited in the classroom by English language learners are provided, as are assessment concerns and strategies.

Hadaway, N. L., Vardell, S. M., & Young, T. A. (2009). What every teacher should know about English language learners. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book offers background information about English language learners to suggest a basis for classroom organization. Practical classroom strategies are included.

Herrera, S., Perez, D. R., & Escamilla, K. (2009). Teaching reading to English language learners: Differentiated literacies. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This book stresses that meaning and relevance are the basis of all instructional activities and strategies used with culturally and linguistically diverse students in the areas of reading and writing instruction. Videos of strategies in action, student samples, and teacher voices are provided.

Hoover, J., Klingner, J. K., Baca, L., & Patton, J. (2007). Methods for teaching culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Merrill/ Prentice Hall.

This book differentiates between learning differences and learning disabilities in the culturally and linguistically diverse population of students, and suggests instructional methods to meet each group’s needs.

Klingner, J. K., Hoover, J., & Baca, L. (2008). Why do English language learners struggle with reading? Distinguishing language acquisition from learning disabilities.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

This book is a resource to help decipher whether an English language learner’s reading difficulties are attributed to language acquisition difficulties or to learning disabilities. Assessment techniques, instructional tips, and practical strategies are provided.

Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Boardman, A. (2007). Teaching reading comprehension to students with learning difficulties. New York: Guilford.

This book servers as a resource for all grade level teachers to aid students in the area of comprehension. Reproducible lesson plans and instructional materials are included.

Linan-Thompson, L., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based methods of reading instruction for English language learners: Grades k–4. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

This book includes reading instruction methods for English language learners based on research done in the area of reading instruction. A list of helpful Websites is also on hand.

Online Resources

Bank Street’s College’s Guide to Literacy for Volunteers and Tutors: English Language Learner http://www.bankstreet.edu/literacyguide/

This Website provides information about literacy development and English language learners targeted for volunteers and tutors that work with this population of students. Sample lesson plans, games, reading strategies, and book suggestions are all here.

Center for Applied Linguistics http://www.cal.org/

This Website is dedicated to improving English communication for all persons, regardless of language or cultural differences. Resources include topics such as information about dialects and refugee integration.

Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching English Language Learners (CREATE) http://www.cal.org/create/

This Website includes information about the research and teaching of English language learners with a primary focus on grades 4–8.

Center on Instruction http://www.centeroninstruction.org/topic.cfm?k=ELL

This site offers a compilation of free, scientifically based resources for state, districts, and local educators to enhance instruction. The information on hand here is broken down into the areas of literacy, mathematics, science, ELL, special education, RTI, eLearning, and federal priorities.

Colorín Colorado. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies for content learning. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/content/comprehension

This Web resource—available in both English and Spanish—offers a wealth of information on and suggestions about how to teach reading comprehension skills.

Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Linquanti, R. (2011, January 19). Programs and practices for effective sheltered content instruction [Webinar 12]. Retrieved April 8,
2011, from http://www.schoolsmovingup.net/cs/smu/view/e/4686

This Webinar offers an overview of effective sheltered content instruction, featuring the SIOP model. Note that archived Webinars require registration to access.

Gulack, J., & Silverstein, S. (n.d.). Techniques, strategies, and suggestions for teachers of LEP and former LEP students [TASSI: SDAIE Handbook]. (Online
informational booklet), Retrieved on October 1, 2010 from http://www.suhsd.k12.ca.us/suh/—suhionline/sdaie/sdaiehandbook.html#paragraph

This online booklet focuses on supporting students transitioning from an ESL or sheltered class into the regular classroom. Explanations and strategies are provided for general educators.

National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) http://www.nabe.org/

This professional organization is dedicated to representing bilingual educators and English language learners. NABE provides professional development, fights for the interest of language minority students, lobbies to ensure adequate funding is available, mobilizes parents and communities, and educates the public about bilingual education.

National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME) http://nameorg.org/

NAME is a volunteer organization of persons advocating for educational equity and social justice. Information is given about a yearly conference.

Reading Rockets: http://www.readingrockets.org/

This Website for persons teaching children to read includes a wealth of information for parents, teachers, principals, librarians, school psychologists, school counselors, and speech pathologists. Information is also available in Spanish.

Spycher, P. (2008). English learners and the language arts (ELLA): Supporting teachers to provide rigorous literacy instruction to all students. Proceedings of the WestEd
Webinar. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.wested.org/cs/we/view/serv/125

This WestEd Webinar touched on topics related to ELLs in the language arts. Specific subjects addressed included the role of ELLA professional development, the ways in which ELLA offers multiple layers of support to schools and districts, and ELLA’s logistics and costs, among numerous others.

Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts http://www.meadowscenter.org/vgc

This center located at the University of Texas at Austin strives to improve the educational outcomes for English language learners and students with special needs in the areas of reading and language arts. Professional development information and materials are available at the Website.

Texas Comprehensive Center. (2010). What can a mathematics teacher do for the English language learner? Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://txcc.sedl.org/resources/ell_materials/mell/beginner.html

This easy-to-read bulleted list of typical characteristics and suggested strategies is targeted at beginning language learners.

The University of Texas at Austin, College of Education. (2001). Essential reading strategies for the struggling reader: Activities for an accelerated reading program,
expanded edition. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.meadowscenter.org/vgc/downloads/primary/booklets/Essential_Strategies.pdf

This manual includes activities to supplement the regular reading curriculum for students who are struggling. The four areas addressed are fluency, phonological awareness, instructional reading with comprehension, and word analysis and spelling. Sample lesson plans and modified sample lesson plans are included.

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES). (2007). Effective literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, fromhttp://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/20074011.pdf

This practice guide was developed for use by a broad spectrum of school practitioners and contains specific and coherent evidenced-based recommendations pertaining to literacy instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades.

U.S. Department of Education. (2007). Best practices for ELLs: Small-group interventions. Retrieved on June 6, 2011, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/28881

This report from the U.S. Department of Education—based on four studies conducted with ELLs—includes a summary of the recommendation, as well as a number of detailed tips on effective implementation and thoughts about possible pitfalls that instructors and school leaders should be on guard against.

U.S. Department of Education. (2007). Best practices for ELLs: Vocabulary instruction. Retrieved on June 6, 2011, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/28882

This report from the U.S. Department of Education—based on three studies conducted with ELLs—includes a summary of the recommendation, as well as useful tips on effective implementation and thoughts about possible stumbling blocks along the way.

U.S. Department of Education. (2015). English learner tool kit. Retrieved on December 15, 2015, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/english-learner-toolkit/index.html

This online resource is designed to help state and local education agencies to fulfill their legal obligations to English language learners in their classrooms. Included are links to information on staffing and supporting ELL programs, assessment and evaluation of those programs, and creating inclusive environments for all learners, among much else.

Wilen, D. K. (2004). English language learners: An introductory guide for educators. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

This handout for families and educators offers an overview of English language learners and some of the interventions that educators can implement in the classroom to support them.

Videos

EDPro. (2007, March 27). Starting points: Working with young English language learners. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aMD38A2u9wE&feature=related

This video is an advertisement for the Starting Points series produced by Edpro. A sample video clip from the series is shown.

Pearson Education. (2009). New instructional model helps English learners succeed. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ty3n07UaFUU

This video gives names and faces to the ever-increasing population of students in the classroom who are learning English as a second language. Brief data are given about the effectiveness and efficiency of using the SIOP model of teaching to improve outcomes for these students in the classroom.

Module: The Pre-Referral Process: Procedures for Supporting Students with Academic and Behavioral Concerns

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Web Resources

Albemarle County Public Schools http://schoolcenter.k12albemarle.org/education/district/district.php?sectionid=1

This Website is a storehouse of information about the intervention efforts of the Albemarle, Virginia, public school system. Included are relevant data, assessment criteria, and useful resources for parents, students, and members of the community.

Intervention Central http://interventioncentral.org/

This site provides resources on school-based intervention teams as designed and implemented in the Syracuse, New York, city school district. Among the materials and resources on offer are videos, fact sheets, pre-made forms, and a variety of related information.

LD Online http://www.ldonline.org/

This expansive Website houses information and resources pertaining to learning disabilities for use by educators, parents, and students alike. Visitors interested in learning more about the pre-referral process will find a host of informative materials.

The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) http://nccrest.org/

The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) Website offers a wealth of information related to reducing inappropriate referrals to special education among students from linguistically diverse backgrounds.

Module: Universal Design for Learning: Creating a Learning Environment that Challenges and Engages All Students

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Articles

The ACCESS Project, Colorado State University. (n.d.). What is Universal Design for Learning? Retrieved on August 11, 2009, from http://accessproject.colostate.edu/udl/documents/what_is_udl.pdf

This Website contains a veritable wealth of information related to Universal Design for Learning, including movies, audio files, and transcripts. Included are overviews of UDL (including a history of the philosophy behind the practice), prescriptions for implementing UDL principles into the general education classroom, and links to resources for students and faculty.

Andrade, H. G. (1997). Understanding rubrics. Educational leadership, 54(4). Retrieved on March 4, 2009 from http://www.middleweb.com/rubricsHG.html

This useful resource offers an overview of rubrics, why they are useful, and how to go about creating them. A look at the possible expanded use of rubrics—at home, for example—is included.

Edyburn, D. L. (2010). Would you recognize universal design for learning if you saw it? Ten propositions for new directions for the second decade of UDL. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, 33–41.

This paper expands and elaborates on an early article (also published in Learning Disability Quarterly). In it, the author offers a detailed examination of the history and institutional context of universal design for learning, as well as speculation about future developments for the approach. Ten propositions for that future are offered and discussed.

Flores, M. (2008). Universal design in elementary and middle school: Designing classrooms and instructional practices to ensure access to learning for all students. Childhood Education, 84(4), pp. 224–229.

In this article, the author overviews Universal Design for Learning (here called Universal Design for Instruction [UDI]) with a particular focus on the method’s usefulness in elementary and middle-school classrooms.

Goodman, G., & Williams, C. M. (2007). Interventions for increasing the academic engagement with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(6), pp. 53–61.

The authors here detail their observations and field-tested outcomes involving the effectiveness of universally designed interventions in increasing the participation of students with autism spectrum disorder in the general education classroom. A focus is placed on the idea of individually designed interventions with special attention to the unique needs of every student.

Jackson R., & Harper, K. (2001). Teacher planning and the Universal Design for Learning environments. Peabody, MA: Center for Applied Technology, Inc. Retrieved on October 16, 2008, from https://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_teacherplanning.html

This article promotes the effectiveness of the UDL principles, while also offering concrete examples of their application in the general education classroom. Collaborative teaching is also given special emphasis.

Kortering, L. J., McClannon, T. W., & Braziel, P. M. (2008). Universal design for learning: A look at what algebra and biology students with and without high incidence conditions are saying. Remedial and Special Education, 29(6), pp. 352–363.

Here the authors present their findings on what a group of students (among them students with high-incidence disabilities) perceived about their interactions with Universal Design for Learning principles. Their findings reveal that the students found UDL much to their liking and voiced hopes that their teachers would use more of it in their instruction. A discussion of the implications of these outcomes is included.

Kurtis, S. A., Matthews, C. E., & Smallwood, T. (2009). (Dis)Solving the differences: A physical science lesson using universal design. Intervention in School and Clinic, (44)3, 151–159.

In this article, the authors set about showing the ways in which a lesson in science can be adapted using the principles of Universal Design for Learning.

National Universal Design for Learning Task Force. (n.d.). UDL: The facts for educators. Retrieved on November 15, 2011, from http://udl4maryland.webs.com/UDLEducatorsFactSheet.pdf

This general overview provides a brief but informative introduction to the UDL method, answering questions such as “What is Universal Design and Universal Design for Learning?” “What are the benefits of UDL?” and “What are the principles of UDL?”

Sopko, K. M. (2009, April). Universal Design for Learning: Policy challenges and recommendations. Retrieved on August 13, 2009, from http://www.projectforum.org/

This paper, supported by the U.S. Department of Education, offers an overview of federal regulatory language related to universal design for learning (UDL). Included are proposals from various panel presentations on the UDL concept.

Strangman, N., Hitchcock, C., Hall, T., Meo, G., & Coyne, P. (2008). Response-to- instruction and Universal Design for Learning: How might they intersect in the general education classroom? Retrieved on August 11, 2009, from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/documents/RTIandUDLFinal2.pdf

As its title suggests, this article undertakes an examination of RTI and UDL and proposes ways that they might interact in general education classrooms to the benefit of today’s diverse learners.

Thompson, S., & Thurlow, M. (2002). Universal designed assessments: Better tests for everyone! (Policy Directions No. 14). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes. Retrieved on October 16, 2008, from http://cehd.umn.edu/nceo/OnlinePubs/Policy14.htm

The authors posit that the increased emphasis on testing in today’s schools requires immediate efforts to universally design those tests to be as accessible as possible for today’s diverse learners. Here they present a number of clearly articulated principles through which to carry out this aim, including “Plain Language Editing Strategies” and “Dimensions of Legibility and Characteristics of Maximum Legibility.”

Thompson, S. J., Johnstone, C. J., & Thurlow, M. L. (2002). Universal design applied to large scale assessments (Synthesis Report 44). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://cehd.umn.edu/NCEO/OnlinePubs/Synthesis44.html

This paper sets out to explore the effect of UDL principles on large-scale assessments. It establishes and examines seven key of universally designed assessments, including “inclusive assessment population,” “accessible, non-biased items,” and “amenable to accommodations.” Suggestions for designing universally accessible assessments are included.

U.S. Department of Education. (2009, April). American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Using ARRA funds to drive school reform and improvement. Retrieved on August 13, 2009, from http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/leg/recovery/guidance/uses.doc

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (n.d.). Tool kit on teaching and assessing students with disabilities. Retrieved on August 11, 2009, from http://www.osepideasthatwork.org/toolkit/index.asp

This online resource, made available by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Plans, includes a Tool Kit on Universal Design for Learning with links to a host of outside information and materials. Among these is an Instructional Practices page as well as one devoted to Assessment.

Online Resources

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2011). Universal design for learning guidelines, version 2.0. Retrieved on September 10, 2015, from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines

Designed to assist classroom instructors who seek to develop courses of study or curricula that are more easily accessible by all of their students, these guidelines developed by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) include a detailed explanation of UDL, links to examples and resources to support UDL implementation, and an overview of the current research into UDL effectiveness. A section detailing the three primary principles of universal design for learning offers a deeper understanding of the framework.

Module: What Do You See? Perceptions of Disability

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Articles

Danforth, S., & Rhodes, W. C. (1997). Deconstructing disability: A philosophy for inclusion. Remedial and Special Education, 18, 357-366.

This article provides a description of the theoretical work of Jacques Derrida and lays out a hierarchy ranging from “ability” to “disability.” By deconstructing the concept of disability, the authors are attempting to assist educators by providing useful language to use when advocating for students with disabilities and their needs for support in inclusive settings.

Longmore, P. K. (1998). Introduction. In P.K. Longmore (Ed.), Disability watch: The status of people with disabilities in the United States. Oakland: Disability Rights Advocates.

Professor of History and Director of the Institute on Disability at San Francisco State University, Paul Longmore writes about the bias and discrimination people with disabilities face in daily life. He writes about social conditions across time, making the case that, for people with disabilities, improvements are only modest at best. As a key member of the disability rights movement, he offers an insightful and provocative assessment of the impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

Books

Branson, J., & Miller, D. (2002). Damned for their difference: The cultural construction of deaf people as disabled. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Jan Branson and Don Miller present a sociological history of people who are deaf that builds the case that deaf people do not have a disability but rather are handicapped by their minority group status. Their premise is aligned with principles associated with “Deaf Culture.” The authors explore the cultural, social, and historical contexts of Deaf people, exploring the relationships of disability and membership in a minority group. Branson and Miller stress that Deaf people have been consistently discriminated against across time, but it is only until recently that discriminatory practices have been publicly exposed.

Brown, C. (1955). The childhood story of Christy Brown. New York: Simon & Schuster.

In his autobiography, formerly titled
My Left Foot, Christy Brown describes his journey to find his niche as a writer and an artist. Brown’s story became known worldwide because it was made into the movie, My Left Foot ,. Through this charming and engaging story, he talks about life in post–World-War-II Dublin, Ireland. Brown recounts how despite extraordinary circumstances and challenges created by his severe disabilities, he became a participating member of mainstream society.

Stapleton, D. C., & Burkhauser, R. V. (Eds.).(2003). The decline in employment of people with disabilities: A policy puzzle. Cornell University: W. E. Upjohn Institute.

In spite of numerous improvements brought about by ADA, the editors contend that the employment rate has not improved but has actually declined. The book offers statistics as well as detailed explanations for this decline.

Videos

Without pity: A film about abilities. HBO Films, (1996). (Available from films for the Humanities & Sciences; P.O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. (800)257-5126; (609)275-1400)

Christopher Reeve narrates this video, originally produced as a film for television that cameos the lives of several individuals with disabilities. These stories demonstrate the countless ways in which people with disabilities carry on with their lives and participate in mainstream society. The film shares snapshots of Americans who have disabilities but insist on the chance for “normal” lives.

Born on the Fourth of July. Universal Studios, (1989).

Originally a book about a Vietnam veteran who received devastating injuries during the war, this Oscar-award–winning film tracks a young man’s anger, depression, and then advocacy about his disabilities. The movie clearly illustrates the challenges faced by people with physical disabilities.

Web Resources

Disability Social History Project http://www.disabilityhistory.org

Use this Website to read about people with disabilities. Additional links help you find more information about the people highlighted in the original site. The Website also includes a historical timeline that marks the first account of the use of a prosthesis, as well as other historical and interesting information about disabilities.

Self Advocacy Net http://selfadvocatenet.com

This Website features important issues that impact people with intellectual or cognitive disabilities. It provides an avenue for people to share their stories and opportunities for everyone to learn about the challenges faced by people with disabilities. The site is particularly popular because people with disabilities learn from each other as they share experiences.

Gimp on the Go http://www.gimponthego.com

The Gimp on the Go Website includes current information about travel. Accommodations and accessibility facts for local theaters, hotels, and favorite travel spots are explained. Contact information is provided for the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) along with other useful resources to help make travel for people with disabilities more enjoyable. The proprietor of the site, Mr. Lloyd, hopes to catch readers’ attention with the Website name. Mr. Lloyd, who is disabled himself, says his intention is not to offend anyone but, rather, to provide a Website that is straightforward and honest.

Module: Working with Your School Nurse: What General Education Teachers Should Do To Promote Educational Success for Students with Health Needs

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Articles

Black, S. (2003). Prescription for learning: School nurses play a key role in student achievement—Or could, if there were enough of them. American School Board Journal, 190(3).

This article begins with a general overview of the role and importance of the school nurse in promoting children’s health and, therefore, their education. It then continues to provide statistics from the National Association of School Nurses on the different student-to-nurse ratios throughout the country. To encourage support for hiring more school nurses, the article also includes a model for a comprehensive school health program (provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and details on Missouri’s three-tier plan to improve student health services. Researchers cited in the article stated that a 750:1 student-to-nurse ratio is ideal.

Health and Health Care in Schools. (2003, June). The impact of FERPA and HIPAA on privacy protections for health information at school: Questions from readers. Retrieved September 20, 2005, from http://www.healthinschools.org/static/ejournal/2003/june_print.aspx

This journal supplement offers a question-and-answer format provided by the Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, covering several topics related to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy regulations and to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Dialogues are provided on categories including FERPA/HIPAA interface, sharing immunization information according to FERPA and HIPAA, FERPA and “legitimate educational interests,” the definition of a “HIPAA transaction,” and other miscellaneous questions.

Smolkin, Rachel. (2003). Rx for school nursing: Some districts are trying creative approaches to fill critical nursing needs. School Administrator, January 2003. Retrieved September 20, 2005, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JSD/is_1_60/ai_95954344

The article discusses reasons and solutions for the growing lack of school nurses. According to the article, budgetary problems, an insufficient number of nurses, and more complex student health concerns are some of the reasons why school leaders are having to use creative means to provide their students with healthcare services. Some of the recommendations include training school leaders to give out medicines, utilizing health assistants who do not have nursing licenses, enticing retired nurses to return to schools part-time, soliciting local medical students to volunteer services, and taking advantage of funding and programs provided by a variety of local health agencies and national health organizations.

Books

Gorman, L., Raines, M., Sultan, D. (2002). Psychosocial nursing for general patient care. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

Designed as a quick-reference to expedite intervention, this handbook discusses types of psychosocial problems, including those resulting from stresses of illness. The book provides information on specific disorders and conditions, care in various settings, cultural considerations, medication, suggested learning activities, documentation guidelines, and more. Relaxation techniques and complementary and alternative approaches also are explored in the book’s appendices.

Lewis, K., & Bear, B. (2002). Manual of school health. Philadelphia: Elsevier Science.

The book provides information on health issues of children from birth through 21 years in age, and it includes details on different child-care and education programs. Various new topics appear in this second edition, such as adolescent and gender specific issues, 21st century health challenges, and violence. Subject matter from the first edition, such as growth and development; acute conditions; chronic conditions; special education; and emergency, disaster, and first aid also remain as content categories.

Schwab, N., Gelfman, M. (2001). Legal issues in school health services. North Branch, MN: Sunrise River Press.

A resource for school leaders, school attorneys, and school nurses, this book offers five different content sections, which include Foundations (of school health services and related legal history), Practice Issues, Confidentiality and Records, Discrimination and Special Education, and Special Topics. The various authors cover special education topics such as special education practices, resuscitation efforts, identification and placement of special education children, required school nurse credentials, and future challenges for school health programs.

Videos

Four Kids Who Look Like Everyone Else. Heron Cove Productions (2003).

The video illustrates how school personnel should be involved in providing healthcare services for four children with different illnesses. The video was created as a presentation by the Washington State Senate Health and Long Term Care Committee.

Safe at School: Planning for Children with Special Needs. Lerner Management Designs, Inc., (1995).

The video was produced by the University of Colorado’s School of Nursing, and it discusses school safety issues specific to children with special needs. The video covers how to plan, implement, and revise service, and it also emphasizes efforts by school personnel to prevent risks and injuries.

Online Resources

Health, Mental Health and Safety Guidelines for Schools http://www.nationalguidelines.org

The Website provides information on various health and mental health service topics, including student assistance teams, student access to a certified school nurse, staff trained for emergencies, health-related case management, individualized health services plans, and protocols for special medical procedures, among others. For each category, the Website includes an explanation, a rationale, commentary, references, and related guidelines.

KidSource [Online] http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/parenting.disab.all.4.1.html

The Website features an extensive list of readings and resources related to children with special needs. The list is divided into categories for easy reference; topics on the site include general parent readings; infant, toddler, and early intervention services; parent/professional partnership; siblings and grandparents; special education and related services, print materials by specific disability; and related magazines and newsletters. The site also posts a navigation column with links to the National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) articles and information, site content articles, forums, and related articles.

National Association of School Nurses http://www.nasn.org

The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) states its purpose is to “advance the delivery of professional school health services to promote optimal health and learning in students.” Its Website provides issue briefs, position statements, definitions of roles, publications, and various resource links related to school nursing. The association hosts an active online community through its site, and visitors can find updated information on certification, legislations, grants and awards, state affiliate organizations, and discussion lists. A site map is available to help visitors sort through the many topics and categories covered on the site.

National Mental Health Association http://www.nmha.org

NMHA, the country’s oldest and largest nonprofit organization addressing all aspects of mental health and mental illness according to its Website, posts a variety of information online. The Website features news; how to find local affiliates and mental health professionals; links to treatment, resources, and support groups; FAQs and answers; the NMHA newsletter, and also tips for parents. Also included on the site, sections on children and family advocacy and fact sheets on children’s mental health offer useful research and information for caregivers.

School Health Alert [Online] http://www.schoolnurse.com

The Internet version of the school-health publication School Health Alert, Schoolnurse.com features articles, top research topics, and a variety of links on its homepage. Visitors can find information on medical supplies, publications, and e-learning, and they can also explore the site’s library, bookstore, forum, and fun-stuff page, in addition to research. By selecting “School Nurse Associations” on the Links page, visitors can connect to national and state association Websites for more information on each state’s nursing requirements.
 

Module: Youth with Disabilities in Juvenile Corrections (Part 1): Improving Instruction

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Articles

Sprague, J. R., Scheuermann, B., Wang, E., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., & Vincent, C. (2013). Adopting and adapting PBIS for secure juvenile justice settings: Lessons learned. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(3), 121–134.

This article examines the realities of adapting PBIS to secure juvenile facilities. Included are notes and information on facility wide implementation systems, assessments, lessons learned, and much more.

Reichert, M., & Hawley, R. (2013). Relationships play primary role in boys’ learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(8), 49-53. Retrieved from http://www.jcsd.k12.or.us/sites/jcsd.k12.or.us/files/files/relationships%20play%20primary%20role%20in%20boys’%20learning.pdf

The authors of this article stress the crucial role of positive relationships in the education of boys and young men. Included are notes on the positive steps necessary to achieve the goal of strengthening engagement with school, as well as information on how to turn around relationships that have become troubled.

Online Resources

Center for Parent Information and Resources. (2016, September). Reaching and serving students with disabilities in juvenile justice. Archived Webinar. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/webinar17-juvenilejustice/

The experts in this Webinar co-hosted by the Center for Parent Information and Resources offer a policy perspective on the education of young people in juvenile justice facilities. Among the topics at hand is the impact of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and thoughts on some effective ways to help support the families of students.

Farmer, R. W., Brooks, C. C., & the National Institute of Corrections. (n.d.). Chapter 13: Education. Retrieved from http://www.desktopguide.info/?q=node/19

This chapter on the creation and successful implementation of education programs for young people in detention facilities includes notes on the creation of a culture of learning, the roles of program administrators, examples of program mission statements, and information on the hiring and retention of educators, among much more.

National Center on Intensive Intervention. (n.d.). Behavior: Strategies and sample resources. Retrieved from http://www.intensiveintervention.org/behavior-strategies-and-sample-resources

Visit this Webpage to find and download resources related to behavior strategies that include self-management, antecedent modification, reinforcement, and much more.

National Center on Intensive Intervention. (2015, September). Bringing it together: Why it is important to integrate academics and behavior when thinking about intensive intervention. Archived Webinar. Retrieved from http://www.intensiveintervention.org/video-resource/bringing-it-together-why-it-important-integrate-academics-and-behavior-when-thinking

In this Webinar, the presenters offer information on the inter-relation between successful academic outcomes and effective classroom behavior management. Among other topics, the presenters discuss the use of data-based individualization to help achieve integrated behavioral support.

U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (n.d.). Meeting the educational needs of system-involved youth. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/programs/System_Involved_Youth.html

The information in this section of the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Website includes links to a correctional education guidance package, Department of Justice resources, an extensive list of additional resources, and more.

Websites

The National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth http://www.neglected-delinquent.org/

NDTAC makes available a wide variety of information and resources about students in juvenile justice detention facilities and at-risk youth. Topic areas to explore include teaching and learning, transition, safe and supportive learning environments, and much more.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention http://www.ojjdp.gov

The U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) works with state and federal agencies and others to improve and expand policies and practices related to youth either already in the juvenile corrections system or at risk of being so. OJJDP’s Website offers information in state and national programs, data and statistics, and resources and tools.

Postive Behavioral Interventions and Supports https://www.pbis.org/

This OSEP technical assistance center is tasked “to define, develop, and evaluate a multi-tiered approach to Technical Assistance that improves the capacity of states, districts, and schools to establish, scale-up, and sustain the PBIS framework.” Visitors to the center’s Website will find resources on a host of topics, including student evaluation, juvenile justice, bullying prevention, and family/school partnerships.

Additional IRIS Resources

Module: Youth with Disabilities in Juvenile Corrections (Part 2): Transition and Reentry to School and Community

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Articles

Griller Clark, H., & Mathur, S. R. (2015). Merging two worlds: A tier two model to promote transition of youth from residential settings to the community. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 32(4), 280–298.

This article overviews an evidence-based intervention, called Merging Two Worlds, designed to help youth transition from juvenile corrections facilities back into their communities, schools, and places of employment. The authors provide details about the implementation of the intervention, discuss its record of improving transition outcomes, and make recommendations for further additions and modifications to the program.

Mathur, S. R., Griller Clark, H., & Schoefeld, N. A. (2009, June). Professional development: A capacity-building model for juvenile correctional education systems. The Journal of Correctional Education, 60(2), 164–180.

Here the authors describe a potential professional development structure to better meet the complex educational, behavioral, and social needs of youth in juvenile corrections. Included here is information on ongoing evaluative components, the identification of relevant training materials and resources, and notes on the usefulness of adult learning principles in JC settings, among more.

Sinclair, S. S., Unruh, D. K., Griller Clark, H., & Waintrup, M. G. (2016, December). School personnel perceptions of youth with disabilities returning to high school from the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Special Education, 1–11.

How do classroom instructors feel about students who come to them from juvenile corrections facilities? What are their perceptions about those students, and how do their perceptions affect instruction? In this article, the authors explore the implications of a survey designed to discover some of the answers to those questions. What they find indicates that, although classroom teachers generally consider themselves capable of making a positive difference in these students’ lives, they tend to hold low expectations for them. Further commentary suggests ways to make the provision of transition support more consistent and effective.

Stevens, K. A. (2015, March). Experiences and expectations of youth correctional facility teachers. Master’s Thesis. Retrieved from http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/55539

This Master’s thesis takes an in-depth look at some of the characteristics of teachers who provide instruction inside the juvenile corrections system. The author finds that such teachers tend to view their work as important and of great value, even as they face the challenges related to instructing populations with high levels of special needs in terms of both improved academic and behavioral outcomes.

Online Resources

Gonsoulin, S., & Read, N.W. (2011). Improving educational outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems through interagency communication and collaboration. NDTAC Practice Guide. Retrieved from http://www.neglected-delinquent.org/sites/default/files/docs/NDTAC_PracticeGuide_InteragencyCommunication_2011.pdf

Produced by the National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who Are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk, this comprehensive practice guide overviews a collaborative system designed to improve the instructional and transition outcomes for youth in juvenile corrections facilities. Included here is information on aligning relevant public polices, cross-agency training, the importance of engaging families as key decision makers, among much, much more.

Juvenile Law Center. (2016, January). What the “Every Student Succeeds Act” means for youth in and returning from the juvenile justice system. Retrieved from http://www.jlc.org/sites/default/files/ESSAJJ_Factsheet_FinalWebinarVersion_Jan262016.pdf

Produced by the Juvenile Law Center, this question-and-answer resource covers information related to the ESSA, including a general overview and history of the law; Title I, Part D requirements relating to neglected and delinquent youth as well as youth transition from incarceration or institutionalization back to school, community life, or employment; and links to further resources and information.

Minnesota Department of Education & the Evaluation Group Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota. (2010). 2008–2009 reintegration framework: Systems planning toolkit. Retrieved from https://ici.umn.edu/evaluation/docs/ReintegrationToolkit.pdf

This collaboration between the Minnesota Department of Education & the University of Minnesota’s Evaluation Group Institute on Community Integration offers a step-by-step guide for creating smoother transitions for youth in juvenile corrections facilities back into their communities. Included here are checklists to help instructors and youth to create an action plan, determine their post-exit priorities, and complete a self-assessment. The resource also contains information on interagency collaboration, team planning, and supporting life skills, among much else.

National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability. (2010, March). Improving transition outcomes for youth involved in the juvenile justice system: Practical considerations. NCWD Info Brief, (25). Retrieved from http://www.ncwd-youth.info/sites/default/files/Improving_Outcomes_for_Youth_Involved_in_Juvenile_Justice.pdf

This National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability information brief offers information and statistics to better help readers understand the characteristics of youth in juvenile corrections. Included also are details on early intervention, the judicial system as it relates to JC and youth, and promising practices.

National Technical Assistance Center on Transition. (2013, May). Secondary transition evidence-based practices. Retrieved from http://transitionta.org/sites/default/files/postsecondary/NSTTAC_Evidence-Based_Practice_Flyer.May2013.pdf

Those looking for evidence-based practices related to secondary transition will find this online resource useful. Produced by the National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, the document contains information and links to EBPs for better and more efficient student development, family involvement, program structures, and many more.

University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration. (2013). Making a Map: Finding My Way Back. Retrieved from http://checkandconnect.umn.edu/map/

The source of the similarly titled reference in the section above, this homepage of this University of Minnesota-based project features links, resources, and partner information about a program designed to support “juvenile offenders with disabilities transitioning from the Ramsey County Community Corrections facility serving youth in the Twin Cities area into school, employment, and community programs.”

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections. OSEP Toolkit. Retrieved from https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/jj

Visit this section of the U.S. Department of Education’s IDEAs that Work for links and resources related to youth in juvenile corrections, including resources covering facility-wide practices, educational practices, transition and reentry practices, and community and interagency practices.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Community and interagency collaboration practices. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/sites/default/files/JJ-TIB-Collaboration-Practices-508.pdf

This OSEP resource will be helpful for anyone seeking information and guidance on community and interagency collaboration. Included here are links to specific resources related to record transfers, staffing considerations, and interagency agreements.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Coordinating aftercare services. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/sites/default/files/JJ-TIB-Aftercare-Services-508.pdf

This brief online resource is a good starting point for anyone wishing to learn more about aftercare services for youth exiting the juvenile justice system. Readers will find information here on transition coordination and wraparound plans, as well as notes for individual case managers and coordinators.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Prioritizing family involvement in transition. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/sites/default/files/JJ-TIB-FamilyInvolvement-508_0.pdf

Family involvement is one of the most critical components of successful youth transitions from JC facilities back into community and school life. This OSEP resource includes notes on how to include families in the decision-making process, as well as information on the use of technology to facilitate communications between transition specialists and coordinators and families.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Transition and reentry. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/sites/default/files/JJ-TIB-TransitionReentry-508.pdf

Visit this brief but helpful online resource for links to information related to successful transition planning, family involvement, aftercare services, and more. An overview of transition and reentry key principles is also included.

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d ). You got this: Educational pathways for youth transitioning from juvenile justice facilities. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/students/prep/juvenile-justice-transition/pathways-transitioning-justice-facilities.pdf

Produced by the U.S. Department of Education, this guide will be of use to anyone assisting a youth in his or her transition back into the life of family and community following time in the juvenile corrections system. Found here is a school re-enrollment checklist, a daily planner, and step-by-step tips for staying focused on a successful transition, among many other resources.

Websites

Juvenile Justice Information Exchange
http://jjie.org/hub/reentry/

The online home of the Juvenile Justice Information Exchange contains a wealth of information related to young people in the JC system. Visitors will find information and resources on re-entry, evidence-based practices, dual-status youth, and much more.

National Reentry Resource Center
https://csgjusticecenter.org/nrrc/publications/about-the-national-reentry-resource-center/

Maintained by the Council of State Governments, the National Reentry Resource Center is a rich source of information related to post-exit transitions for youth. Resources include information and links on employment, education, family involvement, evidence-based practices and programs, and more. Visitors will also find resources on reducing recidivism, substance abuse and mental health programs, and mentoring opportunities.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
https://www.ojjdp.gov

OJJDP places its focus on reducing delinquency rates in the first place. Visitors to the center’s Website will be able to search available technical assistance and training programs, funding information for students, mentoring resources, and drug treatment guidelines.

Project RISE
https://education.asu.edu/projects-and-impact/project-rise-re-entry-intervention-and-support-engagement

Arizona State University’s Project RISE is dedicated to providing re-entry support for youth, especially youth with disabilities, following their transition from the JC system to their own communities, families, and schools. An ongoing program, Project RISE is currently assessing the impact of intensive interventions, employment training, and aftercare customization to meet the unique needs of each individual.

What Works in Reentry Clearinghouse
https://whatworks.csgjusticecenter.org

A “one-stop shop for research on the effectiveness of a wide variety of reentry programs and practices,” the What Works in Reentry Clearinghouse offers links and resources for youth exiting the juvenile corrections system, including information on education, employment, housing, mental and physical health programs, mentoring opportunities, drug and substance abuse treatment, and more.

Additional IRIS Resources

Additionally, the Neglected or Delinquent Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children/Youth Who Are Neglected or At-Risk (NDTAC) offers resources about the transition process for youth in the juvenile justice system. In particular, the Transition Toolkit provides useful information that helps teachers and service providers provide transition services for incarcerated youth.

Transition Toolkit 3.0: Meeting the Educational Needs of Youth Exposed to the Juvenile Justice System