Page 11: References & Additional Resources
To cite this module, please use the following:
The IRIS Center (2019). IEPs: Developing high-quality individualized education programs. Retrieved from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/iep01/
Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson School District v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176 (1982)
Board of Education of the Rhinebeck Central School District, 39 IDELR 148 (SE NY 2003)
Carter v. Florence County School District Four, 17 EHLP 452 (D. SC. 1991)
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2017, September). Annual goals. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/iepgoals/
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2018, October). Measuring and reporting progress. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/iep-progress/
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2017, September). Present levels. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/present-levels/
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2017, September). Program modifications for school personnel. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/modifications-personnel/
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2017, November). Related services. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/iep-relatedservices/
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2017, May). Special education. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/iep-specialeducation/
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2017, November). Supplementary aids and services. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/iep-supplementary/
Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District Re–1, 137 S. Ct. 988 (2017).
Escambia County Public School System, 42 IDELR 248 (SEA NY 2004)
Etscheidt, S. K. (2006). Progress monitoring: Legal issues and recommendations for IEP teams. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 38(3), 56–60. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/004005990603800308
Hauser, M. D. (2017). The essential and interrelated components of evidence-based IEPs. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(6), 420–428. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0040059916688327
Hedin, L., & DeSpain, S. (2018). Smart or not? Writing specific, measurable IEP goals. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 51(2), 100–110. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0040059918802587
IDEAs That Work. (2018, April). High expectations and appropriate supports: The importance of IEPs. IDEAs That Work Symposium Series. Retrieved from https://osepideasthatwork.org/osep-meeting/high-expectations-and-appropriate-supports-importance-ieps
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S. Code § 1400 et seq. (2004)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Regulations, 34 C.F.R. § 300.1 et seq.
Kansas State Department of Education. (2017, March). Present levels of academic achievement and functional performance (PLAAFP) statements. Retrieved from https://www.ksde.org/Portals/0/SES/KIAS/PLAAFP.pdf
Kansas State Department of Education. (n.d.). Present levels of academic achievement and functional performance (PLAAFP) statements: Components of the PLAAFP. Retrieved from https://www.ksde.org/Portals/0/SES/KIAS/ExamplesPLAAFPs_IDEA_Gifted.pdf
Kirby v. Cabell County Board of Education, 46 IDELR 156 (S.D. W.V. 2006)
M.C. v. Antelope Valley School District, 852 F.3d 840, 858 F.3d 1189 (9th Cir. 2017)
Office of the State Superintendent of Education, Division of Special Education. (2011, January). Least restrictive environment (LRE) toolkit. Washington, DC: District of Columbia Office of the State Superintendent of Education. Retrieved from https://osse.dc.gov/publication/least-restrictive-environment-toolkit
U.S. Department of Education, Code of Federal Regulation, 1999, Appendix C, Question 36
U.S. Department of Education, Federal Register, Vol. 71 No. 176, 46665
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. (2012, February). Dear colleague: Preschool LRE. Letter. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/guid/idea/memosdcltrs/preschoollre22912.doc
Wright, P. W. D., & Wright, P. D. (2006). Chapter 12: Smart IEPS. In Wrightslaw: From emotions to advocacy (pp. 115–130). Hartfield, VA: Harbor House Law.
Yell, M. L. (2019). The law and special education (5th ed.). New York: Pearson.
Yell, M. L., & Bateman, D. F. (2017). Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District (2017). FAPE and the U.S. Supreme Court. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(6), 420–428. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0040059917721116
Yell, M. L., Katsiyannis, A., Parks Ennis, R., Losinski, M., & Christle, C. A. (2016). Avoiding substantive errors in individualized education program development. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(1), 31–40. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0040059916662204
Freeman, J., Yell, M. L., Shriner, J. G., & Katsiyannis, A. (2019). Federal policy on improving outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Past, present, and future. Behavioral Disorders, 44(2), 67–69.
In 1991, a group of researchers assembled and published a series of recommendations designed to improve the learning outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). In this special issue of Behavioral Disorders, researchers, educators, and policy makers came together to discuss why those recommendations failed to create significant change among students with EBDs and what the future might hold in terms of further research and education policy.
Accommodations: Instructional and Testing Supports for Students with Disabilities
This module overviews instructional and testing accommodations for students with disabilities, explains how accommodations differ from other kinds of instructional adaptations, defines the four categories of accommodations, and describes how to implement accommodations and evaluate their effectiveness for individual students.
Assistive Technology: An Overview
This module offers an overview of assistive technology (AT) and explores ways to expand students’ access to it in the classroom.
This IRIS Case Study describes how to clearly define a student’s behavior so that when they occur they can be reliably identified, measured, or counted. It goes deeper into the methods needed to collect baseline data and then determine whether the student has made progress.
Evidence-Based Practices (Part 1): Identifying and Selecting a Practice or Program
This module discusses the importance of identifying and selecting evidence-based practices.
Evidence-Based Practices (Part 2): Implementing a Practice or Program with Fidelity
This module discusses implementing an evidence-based practice or program with fidelity.
IEP Implementation: School Personnel Responsibilities
This form can be used during an IEP meeting to record a student’s IEP goals and the services and supports needed for the student to achieve those goals. Following the meeting, it can be shared with relevant school personnel to help them understand their responsibilities to ensure the IEP is implemented as intended.
IEP Team Members
This handout lists the members of the IEP team and explains their roles in the IEP process. The list includes those members whose participation is stipulated by IDEA, as well as those whose role is determined by the individual needs of the student.
LRE Information Brief
This information brief summarizes the principle of least restrictive environment (LRE). It also includes a sample process for determining LRE, as well as examples of how the LRE might be designated for two students.
The Pre-referral Process: Procedures for Supporting Students with Academic and Behavioral Concerns
This IRIS Module highlights the benefits of the pre-referral process—a preventative approach that can eliminate inappropriate referrals to special education—and outlines the six stages most commonly involved in its implementation.
Related Services: Common Supports for Students With Disabilities
This module offers a description of related services and an overview of the benefits they provide to students with disabilities in the general education classroom. It highlights five commonly used related services (Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Speech-Language Pathology Services, Social Work Services, and Psychological Services) and briefly highlights many of the other related services as identified through IDEA.
Bailey, T. R., & Weingarten, Z. (2019). Strategies for setting high-quality academic individualized education program goals. Washington, DC: National Center on Intensive Intervention, Office of Special Education Program, U.S. Department of Education.
This useful resource leads readers through a detailed step-by-step process for establishing and achieving appropriate student IEP goals. Covered here are strategies for identifying measurable and verifiable target behaviors, establishing baseline performance, writing measurable goals, and much more.
Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE). (2019, January). Working together online series. Retrieved from https://www.cadreworks.org/resources/cadre-materials/working-together-series
These courses from CADRE provide families and educators with a number of strategies for working together and through conflict. Anyone supporting children or youth with disabilities may benefit from this series, however, the setting in which collaborative problem-solving and conflict resolution takes place within this series is typically the school or IEP meeting. Visitors will find a downloadable facilitator’s guide, course transcripts, and more.
Center for Parent Information & Resources, & NICHCY. (2017, February) Supports, modifications, and accommodations for students. Retrieved from https://www.parentcenterhub.org/accommodations/
Seek out this online resource for a general overview of supports, modifications, and accommodations for students with special needs. Included here is a look at basic terminology and several of the major accommodations categories, program modifications, and assessments, among much else.
IDEAs That Work. (2018, April). High expectations and appropriate supports: The importance of IEPs. IDEAs That Work Symposium Series. Retrieved from https://osepideasthatwork.org/osep-meeting/high-expectations-and-appropriate-supports-importance-ieps-2018
These proceedings of the 2018 OSEP IDEAs That Work Symposium features speakers that include Johnny Collett, Chris Lemons, Barbara Guy, and Karen Erickson discussing the impact of the Endrew F. decision on the development and implementation of high-quality IEPs.
Martin, Nick. (2012). 21 best practices for successful IEP meetings. Retrieved from https://www.cadreworks.org/resources/symposium/sessions/21-best-practices-successful-iep-meetings
Presenting at the Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education’s (CADRE) 5th national symposium, Nick Martin presents 21 best practices to assure efficient, effective, and collaborative IEP team meetings. These include such components as pre-conferencing to assure adequate preparation by all participants, effective time management, establishing meeting guidelines (ground rules), using a written agenda, and 17 more. Practical examples, model forms, and experiential exercises are also included.
Morin, Amanda. (2018). Endrew F. advocacy toolkit. Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/articles/en/download-endrew-f-advocacy-toolkit
The landmark Supreme Court decision is an opportunity to improve the services IEPs offer students. This toolkit provides a sheet of talking points with key language from the Endrew F. decision, and a worksheet to help improve your child’s IEP based on the legal standards in Endrew F. The toolkit was created by looking at key government resources, which you can view or download.
Park, S., Martinez, M., & Chou, F. (2017) CCSSO English learners with disabilities guide: A guide for states creating policies on the identification of and service provision for English learners with disabilities. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from https://ccsso.org/sites/default/files/2017-11/CCSSO%20ELSWD%20Guide_Final%2011%2011%202017.pdf
The purpose of the guide is to offer recommendations to states developing policies and procedures on (1) the identification of English learners with disabilities, and (2) IEP development for English learners with disabilities.
Center on Technology and Disability. (2018). Beth Poss AT and the IEP. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_2aZ62MVaA&list=PLRt8N3Siu_0jue552RwRNY9-WQQJkO9Q-&index=20
The use of Assistive Technology (AT) by students who need them must be reflected in any high-quality IEP. There is no specific requirement in IDEA, however, regarding where to include the consideration of AT in developing the IEP. This video by the Center on Technology and Disability makes some suggestions on how to address accessibility of materials in the IEP and highlights the importance of this discussion.
Exceptional Children’s Assistance Center (ECAC). (2011). The IEP team process videos. Retrieved from
This five-video series covers the IEP process for families, staff, board members, and others. Included here are videos on IDEA and IEPs, the IEP Team, the Team Process, Getting Ready for the IEP Meeting, and the IEP meeting.
Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
This center provides a plethora of online resources about classroom and behavior management. The Tools and Videos for Schools are particularly useful in the areas of ‘SWPBIS for Beginner,’ ‘Primary Level,’ ‘Secondary Level,’ and ‘Tertiary Level.’
Find Your Parent Center
The Center for Parent Information & Resources (CPIR) hosts an interactive site that can be used to identify the Parent Training and Information Centers (PTIs) and Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRCs) for each state and territory. These centers are good sources for current information on state laws and guidelines for special education.
Anyone searching for information about the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act should consider this website their first stop. On hand here are resources for parents, educators, and service providers; state regulations and policy documents, state annual performance reports, among much else.
IDEAS That Work
Maintained by the Office of Special Education Programs, this website offers a wealth of information related to OSEP’s research to practice efforts. Resources include toolkits, reference libraries, tools to help increase stakeholder engagement, and much more.
National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)
NCEO’s goal is to ensure that all students benefit from state and local assessments and accountability efforts. Useful information on testing accommodations for students with disabilities can be found on the Accommodations link.
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (NTACT)
NTACT’s provides online toolkits, guides and other resources to help those relevant professionals implement evidence-based and promising practices to ensure that students with disabilities, including those with significant disabilities, graduate prepared for success in postsecondary education and employment.
U.S. Department of Education, “State Contacts”
This portal to State Education Agencies for all 50 states and the District of Columbia is a valuable tool for those seeking more information about their own state and local regulations regarding the education of students with disabilities.
What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)
The What Works Clearinghouse reviews research on educational practices and programs and provides information to make evidence-based decisions. Its helpful resources include ‘Find What Works,’ which summarizes and compares the evidence level of interventions, ‘Practice Guides,’ which present recommendations about addressing classroom challenges, and ‘Intervention Reports,’ which summarize high-quality research findings for practices and programs.