Page 7: References & Additional Resources

To cite this Module, please use the following:

The IRIS Center. (2017). Youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections (part 2): Transition and reentry to school and community. Retrieved from


Bullis, M., Yovanoff, P., Mueller, G., & Havel, E. (2002). Life on the “outs”—Examination of the facility-to-community transition of incarcerated youth. Exceptional Children, 69, 7–22.

Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., Appleton, J. J., Berman-Young, S., Spanjers, D. M., & Varro, P. (2008). Best practices in fostering student engagement. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (pp. 1099–1120). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Council of State Governments Justice Center. (2015). Locked out: Improving educational and vocational outcomes for incarcerated youth. Retrieved from

Griller-Clark, H. (2006). Transition services for youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system. EDJJ professional development series. College Park, MD: Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

Griller Clark, H., & Mathur, S.R., Brock, L., O’Cummings, M., & Milligan, D. (2016). Transition toolkit 3.0: Meeting the educational needs of youth exposed to the juvenile justice system. Washington, DC: National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth (NDTAC).

Griller Clark, H., & Unruh, D. (2010). Transition practices for adjudicated youth with E/BDs and related disabilities. Behavioral Disorders, 36(1), 43–51.

Leone, P., Quinn, M. M., & Osher, D. M. (2002, July). Collaboration in the juvenile justice system and youth serving agencies: Improving prevention, providing more efficient services, and reducing recidivism for youth with disabilities. Retrieved from

Leone, P., & Weinberg, L. (2012). Addressing the unmet educational needs of children and youth in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Center for Juvenile Justice Reform report. Retrieved from

Mathur, S. R., & Griller Clark, H. (2014). Community engagement for reentry success of youth from juvenile justice: Challenges and opportunities. Education and Treatment of Children, 37(4), 713–734.

Muller, E. (2011, December). Reentry programs for students with disabilities in the juvenile justice system: Four state approaches. inForum Brief Policy Analysis. Retrieved from

Osher, D., Amos, L. B., & Gonsoulin, S. (2012, March). Successfully transitioning youth who are delinquent between institutions and alternative and community schools. Retrieved from

Quinn, M. M., Rutherford, R. B., Leone, P. E., Osher, D. M., & Poirier, J. M. (2005). Youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: A national survey. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 339–345.

Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., Evelo, D. L., & Hurley, C. M. (1998). Dropout prevention for youth with disabilities: Efficacy of a sustained school engagement procedure. Exceptional Children, 65(1), 7–21.

Todis, B., Bullis, M., Waintrup, M., Schultz, R., & D’Ambrosio, R. (2001). Overcoming the odds: Qualitative examination of resilience among formerly incarcerated adolescents. Exceptional Children, 68(1), 119-139.

University of Minnesota. (n.d.). Making a map: Finding my way back (MAP). PowerPoint Slides. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Transition planning, beginning at intake. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from

VanderPyl, T. (2015). Easing reentry through employability skills training for incarcerated youth. Journal of Applied Juvenile Justice Services, 41-57. Retrieved from

Wiczer, E., Foster, S., & Eberhard, N. (2013, November). Transition planning: Identifying and developing soft skills for post-secondary success. Presented at the ASHA Convention, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from

Zhang D., Barrett D. E., Katsiyannis A., Yoon M. (2011). Juvenile offenders with and without disabilities: Risks and patterns of recidivism. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(1), 12–18.

Additional Resources


Griller Clark, H., & Mathur, S. R. (2015). Merging two worlds: A tier two model to promote transition of youth from residential settings to the community. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 32(4), 280–298.

This article overviews an evidence-based intervention, called Merging Two Worlds, designed to help youth transition from juvenile corrections facilities back into their communities, schools, and places of employment. The authors provide details about the implementation of the intervention, discuss its record of improving transition outcomes, and make recommendations for further additions and modifications to the program.

Mathur, S. R., Griller Clark, H., & Schoefeld, N. A. (2009, June). Professional development: A capacity-building model for juvenile correctional education systems. The Journal of Correctional Education, 60(2), 164–180.

Here the authors describe a potential professional development structure to better meet the complex educational, behavioral, and social needs of youth in juvenile corrections. Included here is information on ongoing evaluative components, the identification of relevant training materials and resources, and notes on the usefulness of adult learning principles in JC settings, among more.

Sinclair, S. S., Unruh, D. K., Griller Clark, H., & Waintrup, M. G. (2016, December). School personnel perceptions of youth with disabilities returning to high school from the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Special Education, 1–11.

How do classroom instructors feel about students who come to them from juvenile corrections facilities? What are their perceptions about those students, and how do their perceptions affect instruction? In this article, the authors explore the implications of a survey designed to discover some of the answers to those questions. What they find indicates that, although classroom teachers generally consider themselves capable of making a positive difference in these students’ lives, they tend to hold low expectations for them. Further commentary suggests ways to make the provision of transition support more consistent and effective.

Stevens, K. A. (2015, March). Experiences and expectations of youth correctional facility teachers. Master’s Thesis. Retrieved from

This Master’s thesis takes an in-depth look at some of the characteristics of teachers who provide instruction inside the juvenile corrections system. The author finds that such teachers tend to view their work as important and of great value, even as they face the challenges related to instructing populations with high levels of special needs in terms of both improved academic and behavioral outcomes.

Online Resources

Gonsoulin, S., & Read, N.W. (2011). Improving educational outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems through interagency communication and collaboration. NDTAC Practice Guide. Retrieved from

Produced by the National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who Are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk, this comprehensive practice guide overviews a collaborative system designed to improve the instructional and transition outcomes for youth in juvenile corrections facilities. Included here is information on aligning relevant public polices, cross-agency training, the importance of engaging families as key decision makers, among much, much more.

Juvenile Law Center. (2016, January). What the “Every Student Succeeds Act” means for youth in and returning from the juvenile justice system. Retrieved from

Produced by the Juvenile Law Center, this question-and-answer resource covers information related to the ESSA, including a general overview and history of the law; Title I, Part D requirements relating to neglected and delinquent youth as well as youth transition from incarceration or institutionalization back to school, community life, or employment; and links to further resources and information.

Minnesota Department of Education & the Evaluation Group Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota. (2010). 2008–2009 reintegration framework: Systems planning toolkit. Retrieved from

This collaboration between the Minnesota Department of Education & the University of Minnesota’s Evaluation Group Institute on Community Integration offers a step-by-step guide for creating smoother transitions for youth in juvenile corrections facilities back into their communities. Included here are checklists to help instructors and youth to create an action plan, determine their post-exit priorities, and complete a self-assessment. The resource also contains information on interagency collaboration, team planning, and supporting life skills, among much else.

National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability. (2010, March). Improving transition outcomes for youth involved in the juvenile justice system: Practical considerations. NCWD Info Brief, (25). Retrieved from

This National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability information brief offers information and statistics to better help readers understand the characteristics of youth in juvenile corrections. Included also are details on early intervention, the judicial system as it relates to JC and youth, and promising practices.

National Technical Assistance Center on Transition. (2013, May). Secondary transition evidence-based practices. Retrieved from

Those looking for evidence-based practices related to secondary transition will find this online resource useful. Produced by the National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, the document contains information and links to EBPs for better and more efficient student development, family involvement, program structures, and many more.

University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration. (2013). Making a Map: Finding My Way Back. Retrieved from

The source of the similarly titled reference in the section above, this homepage of this University of Minnesota-based project features links, resources, and partner information about a program designed to support “juvenile offenders with disabilities transitioning from the Ramsey County Community Corrections facility serving youth in the Twin Cities area into school, employment, and community programs.”

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections. OSEP Toolkit. Retrieved from

Visit this section of the U.S. Department of Education’s IDEAs that Work for links and resources related to youth in juvenile corrections, including resources covering facility-wide practices, educational practices, transition and reentry practices, and community and interagency practices.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Community and interagency collaboration practices. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from

This OSEP resource will be helpful for anyone seeking information and guidance on community and interagency collaboration. Included here are links to specific resources related to record transfers, staffing considerations, and interagency agreements.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Coordinating aftercare services. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from

This brief online resource is a good starting point for anyone wishing to learn more about aftercare services for youth exiting the juvenile justice system. Readers will find information here on transition coordination and wraparound plans, as well as notes for individual case managers and coordinators.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Prioritizing family involvement in transition. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from

Family involvement is one of the most critical components of successful youth transitions from JC facilities back into community and school life. This OSEP resource includes notes on how to include families in the decision-making process, as well as information on the use of technology to facilitate communications between transition specialists and coordinators and families.

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Improving outcomes for youth with disabilities in juvenile corrections: Transition and reentry. Topical Issue Brief. Retrieved from

Visit this brief but helpful online resource for links to information related to successful transition planning, family involvement, aftercare services, and more. An overview of transition and reentry key principles is also included.

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d ). You got this: Educational pathways for youth transitioning from juvenile justice facilities. Retrieved from

Produced by the U.S. Department of Education, this guide will be of use to anyone assisting a youth in his or her transition back into the life of family and community following time in the juvenile corrections system. Found here is a school re-enrollment checklist, a daily planner, and step-by-step tips for staying focused on a successful transition, among many other resources.


Juvenile Justice Information Exchange

The online home of the Juvenile Justice Information Exchange contains a wealth of information related to young people in the JC system. Visitors will find information and resources on re-entry, evidence-based practices, dual-status youth, and much more.

National Reentry Resource Center

Maintained by the Council of State Governments, the National Reentry Resource Center is a rich source of information related to post-exit transitions for youth. Resources include information and links on employment, education, family involvement, evidence-based practices and programs, and more. Visitors will also find resources on reducing recidivism, substance abuse and mental health programs, and mentoring opportunities.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

OJJDP places its focus on reducing delinquency rates in the first place. Visitors to the center’s Website will be able to search available technical assistance and training programs, funding information for students, mentoring resources, and drug treatment guidelines.

Project RISE

Arizona State University’s Project RISE is dedicated to providing re-entry support for youth, especially youth with disabilities, following their transition from the JC system to their own communities, families, and schools. An ongoing program, Project RISE is currently assessing the impact of intensive interventions, employment training, and aftercare customization to meet the unique needs of each individual.

What Works in Reentry Clearinghouse

A “one-stop shop for research on the effectiveness of a wide variety of reentry programs and practices,” the What Works in Reentry Clearinghouse offers links and resources for youth exiting the juvenile corrections system, including information on education, employment, housing, mental and physical health programs, mentoring opportunities, drug and substance abuse treatment, and more.

Additional IRIS Resources

Additionally, the Neglected or Delinquent Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children/Youth Who Are Neglected or At-Risk (NDTAC) offers resources about the transition process for youth in the juvenile justice system. In particular, the Transition Toolkit provides useful information that helps teachers and service providers provide transition services for incarcerated youth.

Transition Toolkit 3.0: Meeting the Educational Needs of Youth Exposed to the Juvenile Justice System

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