Intensive Intervention (Part 2): Collecting and Analyzing Data for Data-Based Individualization
Data-based individualization, or DBI, offers a systematic approach for gradually individualizing and intensifying interventions for students with severe and persistent academic difficulties. This is accomplished through the systematic use of assessment data, validated interventions, and research-based adaptation strategies. When they implement the DBI process, teachers collect and evaluate data during three of the five steps in the process. They use these data to make informed instructional decisions.
- Step 1: Validated Intervention Program*
- Step 2: Progress Monitor—The teacher collects formative assessment data to determine how a student is responding to the validated intervention program.
- Step 3: Diagnostic Academic Assessment—The teacher collects assessment data to determine why the student is not responding adequately to the validated intervention program.
- Step 4: Intervention Adaptation*
- Step 5: Progress Monitor— The teacher collects formative assessment data to determine how a student is responding to the adapted intervention.
This graphic illustrates both the steps of data-based individualization, as well as they ways in which those steps interact. Step 1, “Validated Intervention Program,” is represented by an orange rectangle. This box connects via a vertical grey line to Step 2, “Progress Monitoring,” which is illustrated as a green oval. Both steps, in turn, are connected to a horizontal line with labeled circles at each of its ends. The circle on the left, “Nonresponsive,” has a red minus sign at its center, while the circle on the right, “Responsive,” has a red plus sign. A grey arrow connected to the “Nonresponsive” circle points toward Step 3 of the DBI process, “Diagnostic Academic Assessment/Functional Assessment,” which is represented as a green oval, similar to Step 2. The “Responsive” circle also has a grey arrow, this one pointing back up toward Step 2, “Progress Monitoring.”
Step 3 is connected via a vertical grey arrow to Step 4, “Intervention Adaptation,” represented as an orange rectangle. Another grey arrow connects Step 4 to Step 5, “Progress Monitoring,” another green oval. As above, these latter steps are connected to a horizontal line with labeled circles at each of its ends. The circle on the left, “Nonresponsive,” has a red minus sign at its center, while the circle on the right, “Responsive,” has a red plus sign. A large grey arrow connected to the “Nonresponsive” circle points back to Step 3, “Diagnostic Academic Assessment/Functional Assessment,” while the “Responsive” circle directs instructors back to Step 5, “Progress Monitoring.”
This module page focuses on Steps 2, 3, and 5, so those green ovals are highlighted whereas the rest of the graphic is slightly faded out.
DBI is an ongoing process of collecting data and making informed instructional decisions. Teachers collect primarily two types of data: progress monitoring and diagnostic assessment. These data help determine how and when students need additional support or interventions.
|Type of Data||Purpose|
Once the teacher has conducted a diagnostic assessment, he or she needs to use the results of the assessment to make data-based instructional decisions. For students like Natalia who do not show improvement after the five-step cycle has been implemented, the teacher repeats the cycle beginning with Step 3, a diagnostic assessment. After Steps 3–5 have been repeated, Natalia demonstrates improved outcomes. For students like Natalia, it might take repeating the last three steps of the cycle a number of times before teachers find an instructional approach to which the student positively responds.
Listen as Chris Lemons summarizes the types of data collected and analyzed during the DBI process (time: 2:13).
Chris Lemons, PhD
Assistant Professor of Special Education
Revisiting Initial Thoughts
Think back to your initial responses to the following questions. After working through the resources in this module, do you still agree with your Initial Thoughts? If not, what aspects of your answers would you change?
What is data-based individualization?
How can school personnel use data to make instructional decisions?
When you are ready, proceed to the Assessment section.