How can school personnel use data to make instructional decisions?
Page 2: Collecting and Evaluating Data
Collecting and evaluating data is extremely important when working with students of all ability levels, but it becomes especially critical when working with students who demonstrate learning challenges. Unfortunately, many educators struggle to understand what data to collect and how to interpret the data they do collect. There are three steps in the DBI process when teachers are expected to collect and evaluate data to make informed instructional decisions.
- Step 1: Validated Intervention Program*
- Step 2: Progress Monitor—The teacher collects formative assessment data to determine how a student is responding to the validated intervention program.
- Step 3: Diagnostic Academic Assessment—The teacher collects assessment data to determine why the student is not responding adequately to the validated intervention program.
- Step 4: Intervention Adaptation*
- Step 5: Progress Monitor— The teacher collects formative assessment data to determine how a student is responding to the adapted intervention.
This graphic illustrates both the steps of data-based individualization, as well as they ways in which those steps interact. Step 1, “Validated Intervention Program,” is represented by an orange rectangle. This box connects via a vertical grey line to Step 2, “Progress Monitoring,” which is illustrated as a green oval. Both steps, in turn, are connected to a horizontal line with labeled circles at each of its ends. The circle on the left, “Nonresponsive,” has a red minus sign at its center, while the circle on the right, “Responsive,” has a red plus sign. A grey arrow connected to the “Nonresponsive” circle points toward Step 3 of the DBI process, “Diagnostic Academic Assessment/Functional Assessment,” which is represented as a green oval, similar to Step 2. The “Responsive” circle also has a grey arrow, this one pointing back up toward Step 2, “Progress Monitoring.”
Step 3 is connected via a vertical grey arrow to Step 4, “Intervention Adaptation,” represented as an orange rectangle. Another grey arrow connects Step 4 to Step 5, “Progress Monitoring,” another green oval. As above, these latter steps are connected to a horizontal line with labeled circles at each of its ends. The circle on the left, “Nonresponsive,” has a red minus sign at its center, while the circle on the right, “Responsive,” has a red plus sign. A large grey arrow connected to the “Nonresponsive” circle points back to Step 3, “Diagnostic Academic Assessment/Functional Assessment,” while the “Responsive” circle directs instructors back to Step 5, “Progress Monitoring.”
This module page focuses on Steps 2, 3, and 5, so those green ovals are highlighted whereas the rest of the graphic is slightly faded out.
Within the DBI process, teachers collect primarily two types of data: progress monitoring and diagnostic assessment.
|Type of Data||Purpose|
Rebecca Zumeta Edmonds discusses the different uses of progress monitoring data and diagnostic assessment data. Next, Sarah Arden discusses the importance of making data-based instructional decisions.
Rebecca Zumeta Edmonds, PhD
American Institutes for Research
Sarah Arden, PhD
Technical Assistance Team
National Center on Intensive Intervention
Who Implements DBI?
Depending on a school’s available resources, a variety of qualified individuals (e.g., intervention provider, special education teacher) can implement DBI. Regardless of who provides the intervention and collects the progress monitoring and diagnostic assessment data, however, a team of school professionals should be involved in making instructional decisions for individual students based on their data. These decisions should not be made by a single individual.